Siste publikasjoner

23764 Computational Economics, 1-20 (2017) Sturla F. Kvamsdal Indexing of Technical Change in Aggregated Data (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10614-017-9771-8) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23764 0 0 Pub_TypeNumber Computational Economics, 1-20 (2017) 0 1 Pub_Writer Sturla F. Kvamsdal 0 2 Pub_Title Indexing of Technical Change in Aggregated Data (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10614-017-9771-8) 0 3 Pub_Publication /Files 0 4 Pub_AbstractEn 0 5 Pub_Type 3 0 6 Pub_Year 2017 0 7 Pub_OldID 0 0 8 23763 Employee Relations, 39(7), 1083-1099 Anna Paula Fijalkowska, Karina Sofie Hjartåker and Torstein Nesheim Lay off employees or terminate consultant contracts? Responses to an external shock in three firms in the Norwegian petroleum industry (http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-11-2016-0219) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23763 1 0 Pub_TypeNumber Employee Relations, 39(7), 1083-1099 1 1 Pub_Writer Anna Paula Fijalkowska, Karina Sofie Hjartåker and Torstein Nesheim 1 2 Pub_Title Lay off employees or terminate consultant contracts? Responses to an external shock in three firms in the Norwegian petroleum industry (http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-11-2016-0219) 1 3 Pub_Publication /Files 1 4 Pub_AbstractEn 1 5 Pub_Type 3 1 6 Pub_Year 2017 1 7 Pub_OldID 0 1 8 23762 Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 57, 303-313 Elizabeth Lindstad, Carl Fredrik Rehn and Gunnar Eskeland Sulphur Abatement Globally in Maritime Shipping (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.09.028) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23762 2 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 57, 303-313 2 1 Pub_Writer Elizabeth Lindstad, Carl Fredrik Rehn and Gunnar Eskeland 2 2 Pub_Title Sulphur Abatement Globally in Maritime Shipping (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.09.028) 2 3 Pub_Publication /Files 2 4 Pub_AbstractEn 2 5 Pub_Type 3 2 6 Pub_Year 2017 2 7 Pub_OldID 0 2 8 23761 Ecological Modelling, 364, 124-131 Sturla F. Kvamsdal, Jose M. Maroto, Manuel Moran and Leif Kristoffer Sandal A bridge between continuous and discrete-time bioeconomic models: Seasonality in fisheries (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.09.020) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23761 3 0 Pub_TypeNumber Ecological Modelling, 364, 124-131 3 1 Pub_Writer Sturla F. Kvamsdal, Jose M. Maroto, Manuel Moran and Leif Kristoffer Sandal 3 2 Pub_Title A bridge between continuous and discrete-time bioeconomic models: Seasonality in fisheries (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.09.020) 3 3 Pub_Publication /Files 3 4 Pub_AbstractEn 3 5 Pub_Type 3 3 6 Pub_Year 2017 3 7 Pub_OldID 0 3 8 23760 Maritime Economics & Logistics, 1-12 (2017) Haiying Jia, Ove Daae Lampe, Veronika Soltészova and Siri Pettersen Strandenes An automatic algorithm for generating seaborne transport pattern maps based on AIS (http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41278-017-0075-7) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23760 4 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Economics & Logistics, 1-12 (2017) 4 1 Pub_Writer Haiying Jia, Ove Daae Lampe, Veronika Soltészova and Siri Pettersen Strandenes 4 2 Pub_Title An automatic algorithm for generating seaborne transport pattern maps based on AIS (http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41278-017-0075-7) 4 3 Pub_Publication /Files 4 4 Pub_AbstractEn 4 5 Pub_Type 3 4 6 Pub_Year 2017 4 7 Pub_OldID 0 4 8 23759 Oxford Development Studies, 45(3), 338-351 Ivar Kolstad, Armando Garcia Pires and Arne Wiig Within-group heterogeneity and group dynamics: analyzing exit of microcredit groups in Angola (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2016.1243237) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23759 5 0 Pub_TypeNumber Oxford Development Studies, 45(3), 338-351 5 1 Pub_Writer Ivar Kolstad, Armando Garcia Pires and Arne Wiig 5 2 Pub_Title Within-group heterogeneity and group dynamics: analyzing exit of microcredit groups in Angola (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2016.1243237) 5 3 Pub_Publication /Files 5 4 Pub_AbstractEn 5 5 Pub_Type 3 5 6 Pub_Year 2017 5 7 Pub_OldID 0 5 8 23758 Information Economics and Policy Hans Jarle Kind, Lars Sørgard and Armando Garcia Pires The effects of strategic news sources on media coverage (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infoecopol.2017.10.002) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23758 6 0 Pub_TypeNumber Information Economics and Policy 6 1 Pub_Writer Hans Jarle Kind, Lars Sørgard and Armando Garcia Pires 6 2 Pub_Title The effects of strategic news sources on media coverage (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infoecopol.2017.10.002) 6 3 Pub_Publication /Files 6 4 Pub_AbstractEn 6 5 Pub_Type 3 6 6 Pub_Year 2017 6 7 Pub_OldID 0 6 8 23757 Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 53, 37-49 Roar Os Ådland, Gro Fonnes, Haiying Jia, Ove Daae Lampe and Siri Pettersen Strandenes The impact of regional environmental regulations on empirical vessel speeds (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.03.018) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23757 7 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 53, 37-49 7 1 Pub_Writer Roar Os Ådland, Gro Fonnes, Haiying Jia, Ove Daae Lampe and Siri Pettersen Strandenes 7 2 Pub_Title The impact of regional environmental regulations on empirical vessel speeds (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.03.018) 7 3 Pub_Publication /Files 7 4 Pub_AbstractEn 7 5 Pub_Type 3 7 6 Pub_Year 2017 7 7 Pub_OldID 0 7 8 23756 Maritime Policy & Management, 44(5), 657-665 Roar Os Ådland, Haiying Jia and Siri Pettersen Strandenes Are AIS-based trade volume estimates reliable? The case of crude oil exports (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03088839.2017.1309470) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23756 8 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Policy & Management, 44(5), 657-665 8 1 Pub_Writer Roar Os Ådland, Haiying Jia and Siri Pettersen Strandenes 8 2 Pub_Title Are AIS-based trade volume estimates reliable? The case of crude oil exports (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03088839.2017.1309470) 8 3 Pub_Publication /Files 8 4 Pub_AbstractEn 8 5 Pub_Type 3 8 6 Pub_Year 2017 8 7 Pub_OldID 0 8 8 23755 Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 54, 50-60 Haiying Jia, Roar Os Ådland, Vishnu Prakash and Tristan Smith Energy efficiency with the application of virtual arrival policy (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.037) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 23755 9 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 54, 50-60 9 1 Pub_Writer Haiying Jia, Roar Os Ådland, Vishnu Prakash and Tristan Smith 9 2 Pub_Title Energy efficiency with the application of virtual arrival policy (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.037) 9 3 Pub_Publication /Files 9 4 Pub_AbstractEn 9 5 Pub_Type 3 9 6 Pub_Year 2017 9 7 Pub_OldID 0 9 8 23753 A13/17 Arnt O. Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal Building Conditions in Norwegian Local Governments: Trends and Determinants /Files/Filer/Publications/A13_17.pdf <p>In light of evidence of low levels of maintenance of public buildings, we investigate trends and determinants of public building conditions in Norwegian local governments. On average, the condition of Norwegian local public facilities have improved slightly in the period 2004 - 2016. Survey data suggest substantial fluctuations in building conditions and a negative relationship between building conditions in 2004 and 2016. A driver behind this result is high investments in local governments with poor building conditions in 2004. Further, we find no systematic relationship between the conditions in 2004 and maintenance expenditures in subsequent years. We conclude that if maintenance levels are too low, investment levels may be too high. Generally, our results hint at an unhealthy balance between maintenance spending and public spending. Finally, we find that both political and fiscal factors are important in explaining building conditions.</p> 1 2017 0 PubID 23753 10 0 Pub_TypeNumber A13/17 10 1 Pub_Writer Arnt O. Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal 10 2 Pub_Title Building Conditions in Norwegian Local Governments: Trends and Determinants 10 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A13_17.pdf 10 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>In light of evidence of low levels of maintenance of public buildings, we investigate trends and determinants of public building conditions in Norwegian local governments. On average, the condition of Norwegian local public facilities have improved slightly in the period 2004 - 2016. Survey data suggest substantial fluctuations in building conditions and a negative relationship between building conditions in 2004 and 2016. A driver behind this result is high investments in local governments with poor building conditions in 2004. Further, we find no systematic relationship between the conditions in 2004 and maintenance expenditures in subsequent years. We conclude that if maintenance levels are too low, investment levels may be too high. Generally, our results hint at an unhealthy balance between maintenance spending and public spending. Finally, we find that both political and fiscal factors are important in explaining building conditions.</p> 10 5 Pub_Type 1 10 6 Pub_Year 2017 10 7 Pub_OldID 0 10 8 23752 Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier, 19(2), 3-24 Nicolay Mydland og Torstein Nesheim Avbyråkratisering i staten? Utfordringer ved prosjekt- og teamorganisering /Files/Filer/Publications/Artikkel_Nesheim_Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier.pdf 3 2017 0 PubID 23752 11 0 Pub_TypeNumber Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier, 19(2), 3-24 11 1 Pub_Writer Nicolay Mydland og Torstein Nesheim 11 2 Pub_Title Avbyråkratisering i staten? Utfordringer ved prosjekt- og teamorganisering 11 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/Artikkel_Nesheim_Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier.pdf 11 4 Pub_AbstractEn 11 5 Pub_Type 3 11 6 Pub_Year 2017 11 7 Pub_OldID 0 11 8 23751 A12/17 Evangelos Toumasatos and Stein-Ivar Steinshamn Coalition formation with externalities: The case of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel fishery in a pre and post brexit context /Files/Filer/Publications/A12_17.pdf <p>In this paper we apply the so-called partition function approach to study coalition formation in the North-east Atlantic mackerel fishery in the presence of externalities. Atlantic mackerel is mainly exploited by the European Union (EU), the United Kingdom (UK), Norway the Faroe Islands and Iceland. Two games are considered. First, a four-player game where the UK is still a member of the EU. Second, a five-player game where the UK is no longer a member of the union. Each game is modelled in two stages. In the first stage, players form coalitions following a predefined set of rules. In the second stage given the coalition structure that has been formed, each coalition choose the economic strategy that maximises its own net present value of the fishery given the behavior of the other coalitions. The game is solved using backward induction to obtain the set of Nash equilibria coalition structures in pure strategies, if any. We find out that the current management regime is among the stable coalition structures in all eight scenarios of the four-player game but in only one case of the five-player game. In addition, stability in the five-player game is sensitive to the growth function applied and the magnitude of the stock elasticity parameter.</p> 1 2017 0 PubID 23751 12 0 Pub_TypeNumber A12/17 12 1 Pub_Writer Evangelos Toumasatos and Stein-Ivar Steinshamn 12 2 Pub_Title Coalition formation with externalities: The case of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel fishery in a pre and post brexit context 12 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A12_17.pdf 12 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>In this paper we apply the so-called partition function approach to study coalition formation in the North-east Atlantic mackerel fishery in the presence of externalities. Atlantic mackerel is mainly exploited by the European Union (EU), the United Kingdom (UK), Norway the Faroe Islands and Iceland. Two games are considered. First, a four-player game where the UK is still a member of the EU. Second, a five-player game where the UK is no longer a member of the union. Each game is modelled in two stages. In the first stage, players form coalitions following a predefined set of rules. In the second stage given the coalition structure that has been formed, each coalition choose the economic strategy that maximises its own net present value of the fishery given the behavior of the other coalitions. The game is solved using backward induction to obtain the set of Nash equilibria coalition structures in pure strategies, if any. We find out that the current management regime is among the stable coalition structures in all eight scenarios of the four-player game but in only one case of the five-player game. In addition, stability in the five-player game is sensitive to the growth function applied and the magnitude of the stock elasticity parameter.</p> 12 5 Pub_Type 1 12 6 Pub_Year 2017 12 7 Pub_OldID 0 12 8 22752 A11/17 Øystein Foros, Mai Thi Nguyen and Frode Steen The Effects of a Day Off from Retail Price Competition: Evidence on Consumer Behavior and Firm Performance in Gasoline Retailing /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_17.pdf <p>First, we analyze how regular days off from competition and a time-dependent price pattern affect firm performance. Second, we examine the effects on firms&rsquo; profitability from consumers&rsquo; changing search- and timing behavior. We use microdata from gasoline retailing in Norway. Since 2004, firms have practiced an industry-wide day off from competition, starting on Mondays at noon, by increasing prices to a common level given by the recommended prices (decided and published in advance). Hence, firms know when and to what level to raise their price. In areas without local competition, retail prices are always equal to the recommended prices. Hinged on this, we regard recommended prices as the monopoly price level. In turn, a foreseeable low-price window is open before every restoration. During the data period, we observe an additional weekly restoration on Thursdays at noon. We show that an additional day off from competition increases firm performance. As expected, a conventional price search of where to buy reduces firms&rsquo; profitability. In contrast, consumers who are aware of the cycle and spend effort on when to buy have a positive impact on firms&rsquo; profitability. If consumers spend effort on when to buy rather than were to buy, price competition might be softened even in the low-price windows.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2017 0 PubID 22752 13 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/17 13 1 Pub_Writer Øystein Foros, Mai Thi Nguyen and Frode Steen 13 2 Pub_Title The Effects of a Day Off from Retail Price Competition: Evidence on Consumer Behavior and Firm Performance in Gasoline Retailing 13 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_17.pdf 13 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>First, we analyze how regular days off from competition and a time-dependent price pattern affect firm performance. Second, we examine the effects on firms&rsquo; profitability from consumers&rsquo; changing search- and timing behavior. We use microdata from gasoline retailing in Norway. Since 2004, firms have practiced an industry-wide day off from competition, starting on Mondays at noon, by increasing prices to a common level given by the recommended prices (decided and published in advance). Hence, firms know when and to what level to raise their price. In areas without local competition, retail prices are always equal to the recommended prices. Hinged on this, we regard recommended prices as the monopoly price level. In turn, a foreseeable low-price window is open before every restoration. During the data period, we observe an additional weekly restoration on Thursdays at noon. We show that an additional day off from competition increases firm performance. As expected, a conventional price search of where to buy reduces firms&rsquo; profitability. In contrast, consumers who are aware of the cycle and spend effort on when to buy have a positive impact on firms&rsquo; profitability. If consumers spend effort on when to buy rather than were to buy, price competition might be softened even in the low-price windows.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 13 5 Pub_Type 1 13 6 Pub_Year 2017 13 7 Pub_OldID 0 13 8 22751 R03/17 Andreas Lie Hauge and Dan-Richard Knudsen Organizational Purpose in Management Control Systems /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_17.pdf <p>The aim of this thesis is to contribute with new insights on the concept of organizational purpose, by answering the following main research question:</p> <p>How does purpose influence the MCS in purpose-driven organizations?</p> <p>There has been a tremendous increase in the general interest of organizational purpose over the course of the last decade. However, there is still a significant lack of scholarly research conducted on the concept. In this thesis, we seek to gain an enhanced understanding of what organizational purpose is, how it may be operationalized in organizations&rsquo; management control systems (MCS), and the potential implications for employees. We seek to understand what organizational purpose is by reviewing the existing management literature on organizational purpose. Furthermore, we conduct a comparative analysis of how the concept is operationalized in the MCS of two Norwegian purpose-driven organizations. The analysis is based on qualitative data gathered from interviewing employees in these organizations.</p> <p>In answering our main research question, we find that there are three important aspects in which organizations with a desire to become purpose-driven need to consider. First, we find that operationalizing purpose in an organization&rsquo;s MCS is a laborious process. This implies that perseverance is a key factor. Second, our results suggest that organizational purpose must be operationalized in ways that are tangible for employees. The purpose should be articulated as an explicit statement, and should be operationalized in the MCS in ways that are understandable to employees. Third, we find that organizational purpose has the ability to spur organizational commitment and employee engagement. Potential consequences for organizations may be reduced turnover, higher level of innovation, and enhanced employee performance. However, our findings suggest that organizations may face a challenge in making employees&rsquo; commitment to the purpose cascade from upper management down to lower hierarchical levels.</p> 2 2017 0 PubID 22751 14 0 Pub_TypeNumber R03/17 14 1 Pub_Writer Andreas Lie Hauge and Dan-Richard Knudsen 14 2 Pub_Title Organizational Purpose in Management Control Systems 14 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_17.pdf 14 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The aim of this thesis is to contribute with new insights on the concept of organizational purpose, by answering the following main research question:</p> <p>How does purpose influence the MCS in purpose-driven organizations?</p> <p>There has been a tremendous increase in the general interest of organizational purpose over the course of the last decade. However, there is still a significant lack of scholarly research conducted on the concept. In this thesis, we seek to gain an enhanced understanding of what organizational purpose is, how it may be operationalized in organizations&rsquo; management control systems (MCS), and the potential implications for employees. We seek to understand what organizational purpose is by reviewing the existing management literature on organizational purpose. Furthermore, we conduct a comparative analysis of how the concept is operationalized in the MCS of two Norwegian purpose-driven organizations. The analysis is based on qualitative data gathered from interviewing employees in these organizations.</p> <p>In answering our main research question, we find that there are three important aspects in which organizations with a desire to become purpose-driven need to consider. First, we find that operationalizing purpose in an organization&rsquo;s MCS is a laborious process. This implies that perseverance is a key factor. Second, our results suggest that organizational purpose must be operationalized in ways that are tangible for employees. The purpose should be articulated as an explicit statement, and should be operationalized in the MCS in ways that are understandable to employees. Third, we find that organizational purpose has the ability to spur organizational commitment and employee engagement. Potential consequences for organizations may be reduced turnover, higher level of innovation, and enhanced employee performance. However, our findings suggest that organizations may face a challenge in making employees&rsquo; commitment to the purpose cascade from upper management down to lower hierarchical levels.</p> 14 5 Pub_Type 2 14 6 Pub_Year 2017 14 7 Pub_OldID 0 14 8 22750 Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier, 19(1), 24-50 Leif Jarle Gressgård, Kåre Hansen og Torstein Nesheim Inter- og intraorganisatorisk samordning: Lærdommer fra strategien "Bolig for velferd" /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 22750 15 0 Pub_TypeNumber Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier, 19(1), 24-50 15 1 Pub_Writer Leif Jarle Gressgård, Kåre Hansen og Torstein Nesheim 15 2 Pub_Title Inter- og intraorganisatorisk samordning: Lærdommer fra strategien "Bolig for velferd" 15 3 Pub_Publication /Files 15 4 Pub_AbstractEn 15 5 Pub_Type 3 15 6 Pub_Year 2017 15 7 Pub_OldID 0 15 8 22749 Søkelys på arbeidslivet, 3/2017, 199-215 Liv Helene Roverud, Tor Kristian Kjølvik, Torstein Nesheim og Kristin Jesnes Mellomledd i oppdragsmarkedet /Files/Filer/Publications/mellomledd_i_oppdragsmarkedet.pdf 3 2017 0 PubID 22749 16 0 Pub_TypeNumber Søkelys på arbeidslivet, 3/2017, 199-215 16 1 Pub_Writer Liv Helene Roverud, Tor Kristian Kjølvik, Torstein Nesheim og Kristin Jesnes 16 2 Pub_Title Mellomledd i oppdragsmarkedet 16 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/mellomledd_i_oppdragsmarkedet.pdf 16 4 Pub_AbstractEn 16 5 Pub_Type 3 16 6 Pub_Year 2017 16 7 Pub_OldID 0 16 8 22748 Maritime Policy & Management (2017) Haiying Jia, Ove Daae Lampe, Veronika Solteszova and Siri P. Strandenes Norwegian port connectivity and its policy implications (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03088839.2017.1366080) /Files/Filer/Publications/2017 Norwegian port connectivity and its policy implications.pdf 3 2017 0 PubID 22748 17 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Policy & Management (2017) 17 1 Pub_Writer Haiying Jia, Ove Daae Lampe, Veronika Solteszova and Siri P. Strandenes 17 2 Pub_Title Norwegian port connectivity and its policy implications (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03088839.2017.1366080) 17 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/2017 Norwegian port connectivity and its policy implications.pdf 17 4 Pub_AbstractEn 17 5 Pub_Type 3 17 6 Pub_Year 2017 17 7 Pub_OldID 0 17 8 22746 A09/17 Sigve Aarflot and Lars Arnegård The Effect of Industrial Diversification on Banks’ Performance. A case study of the Norwegian banking market /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_17.pdf <p>By attracting deposits from savers and offering financing to borrowers, banks play an important role in the economy. Which strategic approach banks ought to pursue for optimizing performance and hence contribute to financial stability is a fundamental question in this context. In this report, we attempt to answer one aspect of this question by estimating the effect of industrial diversification on bank performance using annual data from 112 banks in Norway over the period 2004-2013. Employing several measures of portfolio diversification, we first estimate the average effect of diversification on bank performance. Then, we investigate whether the effect of diversification on performance is dependent on the underlying bank risk. Our findings suggest that increased diversification improves performance for banks in Norway. Moreover, we find that the effect of diversification is in fact dependent on bank risk. Increased diversification seems to be the superior strategy in low- and high risk scenarios, while a more concentrated portfolio should be preferred at moderate risk levels. However, similar studies done in other developed countries find evidence that differs from our results. We address these contrasting results by arguing that differences in country-specific factors such as market structure and risk should be considered in order to make meaningful comparisons.</p> 1 2017 0 PubID 22746 18 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/17 18 1 Pub_Writer Sigve Aarflot and Lars Arnegård 18 2 Pub_Title The Effect of Industrial Diversification on Banks’ Performance. A case study of the Norwegian banking market 18 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_17.pdf 18 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>By attracting deposits from savers and offering financing to borrowers, banks play an important role in the economy. Which strategic approach banks ought to pursue for optimizing performance and hence contribute to financial stability is a fundamental question in this context. In this report, we attempt to answer one aspect of this question by estimating the effect of industrial diversification on bank performance using annual data from 112 banks in Norway over the period 2004-2013. Employing several measures of portfolio diversification, we first estimate the average effect of diversification on bank performance. Then, we investigate whether the effect of diversification on performance is dependent on the underlying bank risk. Our findings suggest that increased diversification improves performance for banks in Norway. Moreover, we find that the effect of diversification is in fact dependent on bank risk. Increased diversification seems to be the superior strategy in low- and high risk scenarios, while a more concentrated portfolio should be preferred at moderate risk levels. However, similar studies done in other developed countries find evidence that differs from our results. We address these contrasting results by arguing that differences in country-specific factors such as market structure and risk should be considered in order to make meaningful comparisons.</p> 18 5 Pub_Type 1 18 6 Pub_Year 2017 18 7 Pub_OldID 0 18 8 22745 R02/17 Nina M. Iversen, Leif E. Hem, Alexander Jakubanecs, Eivind Farstad og Ove Langeland Delings- og formidlingsøkonomi: Muligheter og utfordringer /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 02_17.pdf 2 2017 0 PubID 22745 19 0 Pub_TypeNumber R02/17 19 1 Pub_Writer Nina M. Iversen, Leif E. Hem, Alexander Jakubanecs, Eivind Farstad og Ove Langeland 19 2 Pub_Title Delings- og formidlingsøkonomi: Muligheter og utfordringer 19 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 02_17.pdf 19 4 Pub_AbstractEn 19 5 Pub_Type 2 19 6 Pub_Year 2017 19 7 Pub_OldID 0 19 8 22744 R11/16 Endre Bjørndal and Mette Bjørndal Evaluation of the StoNED Method for Benchmarking and Regulation of Norwegian Electricity Distribution Companies /Files/Filer/Publications/R_1116.pdf <p>We evaluate the StoNED methodology for benchmarking and regulation of network companies, and we compare StoNED to the two-stage DEA method currently used by the Norwegian regulator. We find that the estimated values for the skewness parameter in the second stage of the StoNED procedure can be inconsistent with the assumed positive skewness for the inefficiency term. Setting the skewness parameter to an arbitrary value can have significant consequences for the efficiency levels. This effect is partly neutralized by the revenue calibration performed by the NVE, depending on how the calibration is implemented. Our comparison of results from StoNED and two-stage DEA show that the efficiency scores from the two methods are highly correlated, but that the levels can differ significantly. We also interpret the StoNED coefficient estimates and compare them to the corresponding (dual) DEA estimates. Finally, we illustrate the robustness of the efficiency estimates to noise in data, as exemplified by noisy pension costs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2 2016 0 PubID 22744 20 0 Pub_TypeNumber R11/16 20 1 Pub_Writer Endre Bjørndal and Mette Bjørndal 20 2 Pub_Title Evaluation of the StoNED Method for Benchmarking and Regulation of Norwegian Electricity Distribution Companies 20 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_1116.pdf 20 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>We evaluate the StoNED methodology for benchmarking and regulation of network companies, and we compare StoNED to the two-stage DEA method currently used by the Norwegian regulator. We find that the estimated values for the skewness parameter in the second stage of the StoNED procedure can be inconsistent with the assumed positive skewness for the inefficiency term. Setting the skewness parameter to an arbitrary value can have significant consequences for the efficiency levels. This effect is partly neutralized by the revenue calibration performed by the NVE, depending on how the calibration is implemented. Our comparison of results from StoNED and two-stage DEA show that the efficiency scores from the two methods are highly correlated, but that the levels can differ significantly. We also interpret the StoNED coefficient estimates and compare them to the corresponding (dual) DEA estimates. Finally, we illustrate the robustness of the efficiency estimates to noise in data, as exemplified by noisy pension costs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 20 5 Pub_Type 2 20 6 Pub_Year 2016 20 7 Pub_OldID 0 20 8 22743 A07/17 Torstein Nesheim Tilknytningsformer for arbeid: Virksomhetsstudien /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_17.pdf 1 2017 0 PubID 22743 21 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/17 21 1 Pub_Writer Torstein Nesheim 21 2 Pub_Title Tilknytningsformer for arbeid: Virksomhetsstudien 21 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_17.pdf 21 4 Pub_AbstractEn 21 5 Pub_Type 1 21 6 Pub_Year 2017 21 7 Pub_OldID 0 21 8 22742 A06/17 Øystein Foros and Hans Jarle Kind Upstream Partnerships among Competitors when Size Matters /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_17.pdf <p>In several industries, downstream competitors form upstream partnerships. An important rationale is that higher aggregate upstream volume might generate efficiencies that reduce both fixed and marginal costs. Our focus is on the latter. We show that if upstream marginal costs are decreasing in sales volume, then a partnership between downstream rivals will make them less aggressive. However, a partnership might nonetheless induce both partners and non-partners to charge lower prices. We also show that it might be better for two firms to form a partnership and compete downstream than to merge. Somewhat paradoxically, this is true if they compete fiercely in the downstream market with a third firm. The reason is that a merger is de facto a commitment to set higher prices. Under aggressive competition from the third firm, the members will not want to make such a commitment when upstream marginal costs are decreasing in output.</p> 1 2017 0 PubID 22742 22 0 Pub_TypeNumber A06/17 22 1 Pub_Writer Øystein Foros and Hans Jarle Kind 22 2 Pub_Title Upstream Partnerships among Competitors when Size Matters 22 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_17.pdf 22 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>In several industries, downstream competitors form upstream partnerships. An important rationale is that higher aggregate upstream volume might generate efficiencies that reduce both fixed and marginal costs. Our focus is on the latter. We show that if upstream marginal costs are decreasing in sales volume, then a partnership between downstream rivals will make them less aggressive. However, a partnership might nonetheless induce both partners and non-partners to charge lower prices. We also show that it might be better for two firms to form a partnership and compete downstream than to merge. Somewhat paradoxically, this is true if they compete fiercely in the downstream market with a third firm. The reason is that a merger is de facto a commitment to set higher prices. Under aggressive competition from the third firm, the members will not want to make such a commitment when upstream marginal costs are decreasing in output.</p> 22 5 Pub_Type 1 22 6 Pub_Year 2017 22 7 Pub_OldID 0 22 8 22741 A05/17 Hanna Skjervheim Bernes, Isabel Marie Flo, Øystein Foros and Hans Jarle Kind Raising rivals’ costs or improving efficiency? An exploratory study of managers’ views on backward integration in the grocery market /Files/Filer/Publications/A05_17.pdf <p>Large retail grocery chains&rsquo; backward integration into distribution, procurement and production is controversial, and has received a lot of attention by both policymakers and market players. If a large retail chain for instance takes over scale intensive distribution activities from its suppliers, direct distribution from these suppliers to other retail chains might become more expensive (and might even initiate costly industry‐wide backward integration). An interesting question is thus whether large retailers undertake backward integration mainly for efficiency reasons or whether they do so in order to gain a competitive advantage through raising the costs of the smaller rivals. Theory and econometric analyses are inconclusive. The current study uses a survey to investigate managers&rsquo; views on this issue. The study is explorative, and thus does not formally test different theories, but our findings indicate that large retail chains&rsquo; incentives to backward integrate are mainly related to efficiency rationales.</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2017 0 PubID 22741 23 0 Pub_TypeNumber A05/17 23 1 Pub_Writer Hanna Skjervheim Bernes, Isabel Marie Flo, Øystein Foros and Hans Jarle Kind 23 2 Pub_Title Raising rivals’ costs or improving efficiency? An exploratory study of managers’ views on backward integration in the grocery market 23 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A05_17.pdf 23 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Large retail grocery chains&rsquo; backward integration into distribution, procurement and production is controversial, and has received a lot of attention by both policymakers and market players. If a large retail chain for instance takes over scale intensive distribution activities from its suppliers, direct distribution from these suppliers to other retail chains might become more expensive (and might even initiate costly industry‐wide backward integration). An interesting question is thus whether large retailers undertake backward integration mainly for efficiency reasons or whether they do so in order to gain a competitive advantage through raising the costs of the smaller rivals. Theory and econometric analyses are inconclusive. The current study uses a survey to investigate managers&rsquo; views on this issue. The study is explorative, and thus does not formally test different theories, but our findings indicate that large retail chains&rsquo; incentives to backward integrate are mainly related to efficiency rationales.</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 23 5 Pub_Type 1 23 6 Pub_Year 2017 23 7 Pub_OldID 0 23 8 22740 A04/17 Øystein Foros, Hans Jarle Kind og Frode Steen Individuelle priser i dagligvaremarkedet – et fangens dilemma for kjedene? /Files/Filer/Publications/A04_17.pdf 1 2017 0 PubID 22740 24 0 Pub_TypeNumber A04/17 24 1 Pub_Writer Øystein Foros, Hans Jarle Kind og Frode Steen 24 2 Pub_Title Individuelle priser i dagligvaremarkedet – et fangens dilemma for kjedene? 24 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A04_17.pdf 24 4 Pub_AbstractEn 24 5 Pub_Type 1 24 6 Pub_Year 2017 24 7 Pub_OldID 0 24 8 22739 Økonomisk fiskeriforskning, 27 (1/2017) Bjørndal, M. T.; Bjørndal, T. og Ekerhovd, N.-A. Økonomisk analyse av klippfisknæringa /Files/Filer/Publications/Økonomisk-analyse-av-klippfisknæringa_(1).pdf 3 2017 0 PubID 22739 25 0 Pub_TypeNumber Økonomisk fiskeriforskning, 27 (1/2017) 25 1 Pub_Writer Bjørndal, M. T.; Bjørndal, T. og Ekerhovd, N.-A. 25 2 Pub_Title Økonomisk analyse av klippfisknæringa 25 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/Økonomisk-analyse-av-klippfisknæringa_(1).pdf 25 4 Pub_AbstractEn 25 5 Pub_Type 3 25 6 Pub_Year 2017 25 7 Pub_OldID 0 25 8 22735 Bok Torstein Nesheim og Inger Stensaker (red.), Fagbokforlaget, 2017 Fokus på fremtidens foretaksløsninger /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 22735 26 0 Pub_TypeNumber Bok 26 1 Pub_Writer Torstein Nesheim og Inger Stensaker (red.), Fagbokforlaget, 2017 26 2 Pub_Title Fokus på fremtidens foretaksløsninger 26 3 Pub_Publication /Files 26 4 Pub_AbstractEn 26 5 Pub_Type 3 26 6 Pub_Year 2017 26 7 Pub_OldID 0 26 8 22734 Samfunnsøkonomen, 3/2017, 46-51 Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Ekström, Mathias og Garcia Pires, Armando José Små dytt for store valg: Kan nudging gi bedre oppmøte til lærerstudiet? /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 22734 27 0 Pub_TypeNumber Samfunnsøkonomen, 3/2017, 46-51 27 1 Pub_Writer Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Ekström, Mathias og Garcia Pires, Armando José 27 2 Pub_Title Små dytt for store valg: Kan nudging gi bedre oppmøte til lærerstudiet? 27 3 Pub_Publication /Files 27 4 Pub_AbstractEn 27 5 Pub_Type 3 27 6 Pub_Year 2017 27 7 Pub_OldID 0 27 8 22733 R01/17 Stig-Erik Jakobsen, Pelle Engesæter, Olav Kvitastein, Natalia Mæhle, Torstein Nesheim og Jarle Aarstad Midtveisevaluering av Sivas Inkubatorprogram og Næringshageprogram /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_17.pdf 2 2017 0 PubID 22733 28 0 Pub_TypeNumber R01/17 28 1 Pub_Writer Stig-Erik Jakobsen, Pelle Engesæter, Olav Kvitastein, Natalia Mæhle, Torstein Nesheim og Jarle Aarstad 28 2 Pub_Title Midtveisevaluering av Sivas Inkubatorprogram og Næringshageprogram 28 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_17.pdf 28 4 Pub_AbstractEn 28 5 Pub_Type 2 28 6 Pub_Year 2017 28 7 Pub_OldID 0 28 8 21735 eBok Einar Hope Studier i konkurranse- og energipolitikk. Utvalgte skrifter i samling, 2004 - 2016 /Files/Filer/Publications/Studier i konkurranse- og energipolitikk_eBok_Einar_Hope_(2).pdf 1 2017 0 PubID 21735 29 0 Pub_TypeNumber eBok 29 1 Pub_Writer Einar Hope 29 2 Pub_Title Studier i konkurranse- og energipolitikk. Utvalgte skrifter i samling, 2004 - 2016 29 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/Studier i konkurranse- og energipolitikk_eBok_Einar_Hope_(2).pdf 29 4 Pub_AbstractEn 29 5 Pub_Type 1 29 6 Pub_Year 2017 29 7 Pub_OldID 0 29 8 21732 Maritime Economics and Logistics (2017) Adland, R. and Jia, H. Physical basis risk in freight market hedging (http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41278-016-0053-5) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21732 30 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Economics and Logistics (2017) 30 1 Pub_Writer Adland, R. and Jia, H. 30 2 Pub_Title Physical basis risk in freight market hedging (http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41278-016-0053-5) 30 3 Pub_Publication /Files 30 4 Pub_AbstractEn 30 5 Pub_Type 3 30 6 Pub_Year 2017 30 7 Pub_OldID 0 30 8 21731 Magma, 2/2017, 14-26 Nesheim, T.; Rathke, C. og Smith Nygaard, L. Fleksibel organisering i mediebedrifter /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21731 31 0 Pub_TypeNumber Magma, 2/2017, 14-26 31 1 Pub_Writer Nesheim, T.; Rathke, C. og Smith Nygaard, L. 31 2 Pub_Title Fleksibel organisering i mediebedrifter 31 3 Pub_Publication /Files 31 4 Pub_AbstractEn 31 5 Pub_Type 3 31 6 Pub_Year 2017 31 7 Pub_OldID 0 31 8 21730 A02/17 Kjetil Bjorvatn, Mathias Ekström og Armando J. G. Pires Små dytt for store valg: Rapport fra et forskningsprosjekt om nudging for økt rekruttering til lærerutdanningen /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF A02_17.pdf 1 2017 0 PubID 21730 32 0 Pub_TypeNumber A02/17 32 1 Pub_Writer Kjetil Bjorvatn, Mathias Ekström og Armando J. G. Pires 32 2 Pub_Title Små dytt for store valg: Rapport fra et forskningsprosjekt om nudging for økt rekruttering til lærerutdanningen 32 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF A02_17.pdf 32 4 Pub_AbstractEn 32 5 Pub_Type 1 32 6 Pub_Year 2017 32 7 Pub_OldID 0 32 8 21729 Applied Economics (2017) Bjørndal, T. and Guillen, J. Market integration between wild and farmed seabream and seabass in Spain (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2017.1287856) /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21729 33 0 Pub_TypeNumber Applied Economics (2017) 33 1 Pub_Writer Bjørndal, T. and Guillen, J. 33 2 Pub_Title Market integration between wild and farmed seabream and seabass in Spain (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2017.1287856) 33 3 Pub_Publication /Files 33 4 Pub_AbstractEn 33 5 Pub_Type 3 33 6 Pub_Year 2017 33 7 Pub_OldID 0 33 8 21728 Ecological Economics, 131 (2017), 250-261 Ekerhovd, N.-A. and Kvamsdal, S.F. Up the ante on bioeconomic submodels of marine food webs: A data assimilation-based approach /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21728 34 0 Pub_TypeNumber Ecological Economics, 131 (2017), 250-261 34 1 Pub_Writer Ekerhovd, N.-A. and Kvamsdal, S.F. 34 2 Pub_Title Up the ante on bioeconomic submodels of marine food webs: A data assimilation-based approach 34 3 Pub_Publication /Files 34 4 Pub_AbstractEn 34 5 Pub_Type 3 34 6 Pub_Year 2017 34 7 Pub_OldID 0 34 8 21727 Transportation Research Part A, 95 (2017), 1-12 Adland, R.O., Alger, H., Banyte, J. and Jia, H. Does fuel efficiency pay? Empirical evidence from the drybulk timecharter market revisited /Files 3 2000 0 PubID 21727 35 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part A, 95 (2017), 1-12 35 1 Pub_Writer Adland, R.O., Alger, H., Banyte, J. and Jia, H. 35 2 Pub_Title Does fuel efficiency pay? Empirical evidence from the drybulk timecharter market revisited 35 3 Pub_Publication /Files 35 4 Pub_AbstractEn 35 5 Pub_Type 3 35 6 Pub_Year 2000 35 7 Pub_OldID 0 35 8 21725 R01/16 Ivar Gaasland og Tommy Staahl Gabrielsen Bruk av markeder og konkurranse i omsetning av matvarer – utfordringer og muligheter /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_16_(1).pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21725 36 0 Pub_TypeNumber R01/16 36 1 Pub_Writer Ivar Gaasland og Tommy Staahl Gabrielsen 36 2 Pub_Title Bruk av markeder og konkurranse i omsetning av matvarer – utfordringer og muligheter 36 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_16_(1).pdf 36 4 Pub_AbstractEn 36 5 Pub_Type 2 36 6 Pub_Year 2016 36 7 Pub_OldID 0 36 8 21724 Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253 Nesheim, T., Olsen, K.M. and Sandvik, A.M. Never walk alone: achieving work performance through networking ability and autonomy /Files <p>Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253</p> 3 2017 0 PubID 21724 37 0 Pub_TypeNumber Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253 37 1 Pub_Writer Nesheim, T., Olsen, K.M. and Sandvik, A.M. 37 2 Pub_Title Never walk alone: achieving work performance through networking ability and autonomy 37 3 Pub_Publication /Files 37 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253</p> 37 5 Pub_Type 3 37 6 Pub_Year 2017 37 7 Pub_OldID 0 37 8 21723 R06/16 Lars Kleveland og Anniken Tiset Budsjettet i utvikling. En kvantitativ studie av norske virksomheters bruk og holdning til budsjettet /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_16_(1).pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21723 38 0 Pub_TypeNumber R06/16 38 1 Pub_Writer Lars Kleveland og Anniken Tiset 38 2 Pub_Title Budsjettet i utvikling. En kvantitativ studie av norske virksomheters bruk og holdning til budsjettet 38 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_16_(1).pdf 38 4 Pub_AbstractEn 38 5 Pub_Type 2 38 6 Pub_Year 2016 38 7 Pub_OldID 0 38 8 21722 R10/16 Martin O. Gooderham and Oskar Jensen Skulberg Contradictory Formalisations in a Management Control System /Files/Filer/Publications/R_1016.pdf <p>The formalisations that exist in an organisation are thought to have a substantial influence on how employees interpret the organisation&rsquo;s Management Control System (MCS) (Malmi &amp; Brown, 2008). Previously, researchers claimed that an increase in formalisation would have a negative attitudinal effect on employees, while a decrease induces an autonomous and positive view of the MCS (Burns &amp; Stalker, 1969). Adler &amp; Borys (1996) broke with this notion and argued that it is not the degree of formalisation that determines employee interpretation, but rather the distinctive features of the way rules and procedures are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study is to explore how the introduction of two contradictory formalisations influences the users&rsquo; interpretation of the MCS in an organisation.<br />This thesis conducts a case study of Statoil who have recently introduced two contradictory degrees of formalisations to their MCS. One is a decrease where the aim has been to give employees more freedom to decide what rules and regulations should be defining for them. The other represents an increase through the introduction of a detailed procedure for risk management. By applying a qualitative research methodology, we study how employees have interpreted corporate&rsquo;s intentions behind the two formalisations. Further, we compare how this has influenced their experience of the MCS in the different cases. <br />Overall, our conclusions support the argument made by Adler &amp; Borys (1996) through revealing that how the increased and decreased formalisations in Statoil have been interpreted has been a consequence of their inherent features. We find that corporate have designed and implemented enabling formalisations that have had a positive attitudinal influence on the users. Further, our study suggests that generating an understanding of the underlying rationales behind the formalisations is of particular importance in this process. Finally, we also find that the contradictory degrees of formalisation have induced different interpretations of support roles in the MCS. Where they are regarded as an interference to decision-making latitude in the case of decreased formalisations, support roles are viewed as a positive feature in the case of the opposite.</p> 2 2016 0 PubID 21722 39 0 Pub_TypeNumber R10/16 39 1 Pub_Writer Martin O. Gooderham and Oskar Jensen Skulberg 39 2 Pub_Title Contradictory Formalisations in a Management Control System 39 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_1016.pdf 39 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The formalisations that exist in an organisation are thought to have a substantial influence on how employees interpret the organisation&rsquo;s Management Control System (MCS) (Malmi &amp; Brown, 2008). Previously, researchers claimed that an increase in formalisation would have a negative attitudinal effect on employees, while a decrease induces an autonomous and positive view of the MCS (Burns &amp; Stalker, 1969). Adler &amp; Borys (1996) broke with this notion and argued that it is not the degree of formalisation that determines employee interpretation, but rather the distinctive features of the way rules and procedures are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study is to explore how the introduction of two contradictory formalisations influences the users&rsquo; interpretation of the MCS in an organisation.<br />This thesis conducts a case study of Statoil who have recently introduced two contradictory degrees of formalisations to their MCS. One is a decrease where the aim has been to give employees more freedom to decide what rules and regulations should be defining for them. The other represents an increase through the introduction of a detailed procedure for risk management. By applying a qualitative research methodology, we study how employees have interpreted corporate&rsquo;s intentions behind the two formalisations. Further, we compare how this has influenced their experience of the MCS in the different cases. <br />Overall, our conclusions support the argument made by Adler &amp; Borys (1996) through revealing that how the increased and decreased formalisations in Statoil have been interpreted has been a consequence of their inherent features. We find that corporate have designed and implemented enabling formalisations that have had a positive attitudinal influence on the users. Further, our study suggests that generating an understanding of the underlying rationales behind the formalisations is of particular importance in this process. Finally, we also find that the contradictory degrees of formalisation have induced different interpretations of support roles in the MCS. Where they are regarded as an interference to decision-making latitude in the case of decreased formalisations, support roles are viewed as a positive feature in the case of the opposite.</p> 39 5 Pub_Type 2 39 6 Pub_Year 2016 39 7 Pub_OldID 0 39 8 21721 R09/16 Håvard Baunan and Joel Berge Understanding Risk Appetite. What is it, what pressures shape it and how is it institutionalized /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0916.pdf <p>The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of risk appetite in terms of what it is, what institutional pressures influence it, and how it is institutionalized in an organization. We try to understand what risk appetite is by examining the most influential enterprise risk management frameworks, reports from practitioners, and scholarly research on the topic. Through a case study of a large and complex Norwegian organization, we seek to explain what influences and institutionalizes risk appetite. First, we find that there is a consensus in the literature that risk appetite is a top-down element of enterprise risk management, but that there is disagreement as to how quantitatively it is understood and practiced. Second, we find that one cannot decouple risk appetite from its organizational context, as both external and internal institutional pressures influence risk appetite in the organization. Third, we find that risk appetite is not a singular concept in the organization. Risk appetites varies across risk categories, and the institutionalization of risk appetite relies on cultural elements in the organization. Our thesis adds to the understanding of the risk appetite concept, and adds to the scholarly argument that the evolution of risk appetite should go in the direction of addressing human and social behavior. Further, we contribute with a model to analyze institutionalization of risk appetite in organizations.</p> 2 2016 0 PubID 21721 40 0 Pub_TypeNumber R09/16 40 1 Pub_Writer Håvard Baunan and Joel Berge 40 2 Pub_Title Understanding Risk Appetite. What is it, what pressures shape it and how is it institutionalized 40 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0916.pdf 40 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of risk appetite in terms of what it is, what institutional pressures influence it, and how it is institutionalized in an organization. We try to understand what risk appetite is by examining the most influential enterprise risk management frameworks, reports from practitioners, and scholarly research on the topic. Through a case study of a large and complex Norwegian organization, we seek to explain what influences and institutionalizes risk appetite. First, we find that there is a consensus in the literature that risk appetite is a top-down element of enterprise risk management, but that there is disagreement as to how quantitatively it is understood and practiced. Second, we find that one cannot decouple risk appetite from its organizational context, as both external and internal institutional pressures influence risk appetite in the organization. Third, we find that risk appetite is not a singular concept in the organization. Risk appetites varies across risk categories, and the institutionalization of risk appetite relies on cultural elements in the organization. Our thesis adds to the understanding of the risk appetite concept, and adds to the scholarly argument that the evolution of risk appetite should go in the direction of addressing human and social behavior. Further, we contribute with a model to analyze institutionalization of risk appetite in organizations.</p> 40 5 Pub_Type 2 40 6 Pub_Year 2016 40 7 Pub_OldID 0 40 8 21720 R08/16 Karoline Dybendal Aulie og Vegard Sundnes Tjenende ledelse i små, norske bedrifter. En studie av norske regnskapsbedrifter /Files/Filer/Publications/R08_16.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21720 41 0 Pub_TypeNumber R08/16 41 1 Pub_Writer Karoline Dybendal Aulie og Vegard Sundnes 41 2 Pub_Title Tjenende ledelse i små, norske bedrifter. En studie av norske regnskapsbedrifter 41 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R08_16.pdf 41 4 Pub_AbstractEn 41 5 Pub_Type 2 41 6 Pub_Year 2016 41 7 Pub_OldID 0 41 8 21719 R07/16 Marie Aune og Julie Bie Tillit i virtuelle prosjektteam /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0716.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21719 42 0 Pub_TypeNumber R07/16 42 1 Pub_Writer Marie Aune og Julie Bie 42 2 Pub_Title Tillit i virtuelle prosjektteam 42 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0716.pdf 42 4 Pub_AbstractEn 42 5 Pub_Type 2 42 6 Pub_Year 2016 42 7 Pub_OldID 0 42 8 21717 Journal of Public Economics, 147 (2017), 1-15 Brekke, K., Garcia Pires, A., Schindler, D. and Schjelderup, G. Capital Taxation and Imperfect Competition: ACE vs. CBIT /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21717 43 0 Pub_TypeNumber Journal of Public Economics, 147 (2017), 1-15 43 1 Pub_Writer Brekke, K., Garcia Pires, A., Schindler, D. and Schjelderup, G. 43 2 Pub_Title Capital Taxation and Imperfect Competition: ACE vs. CBIT 43 3 Pub_Publication /Files 43 4 Pub_AbstractEn 43 5 Pub_Type 3 43 6 Pub_Year 2017 43 7 Pub_OldID 0 43 8 21716 A11/16 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_16_(1).pdf <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2014, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 10/16 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 21716 44 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/16 44 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving 44 2 Pub_Title NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies 44 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_16_(1).pdf 44 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2014, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 10/16 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 44 5 Pub_Type 1 44 6 Pub_Year 2016 44 7 Pub_OldID 0 44 8 21714 A10/16 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_16.pdf 1 2016 0 PubID 21714 45 0 Pub_TypeNumber A10/16 45 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving 45 2 Pub_Title Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper 45 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_16.pdf 45 4 Pub_AbstractEn 45 5 Pub_Type 1 45 6 Pub_Year 2016 45 7 Pub_OldID 0 45 8 21713 A09/16 Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal Concerns among local government facility managers /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">Purpose: To investigate which concerns are most important for local government facility managers in Norway.<br />Design: We analyze a survey dataset covering about 2/3 of all Norwegian local governments, using descriptive statistics techniques.<br />Findings: The facility managers are most worried about weak fiscal conditions and lack of political priority of facility management. Almost all facility managers report concerns about these issues, and the responses do not vary much across local governments with different characteristics. There is also widespread concern, albeit less serious, about organizational structure and recuitment problems. Local governments with a decentralized facility management are more concerned about the organizational structure than those with a centralized structure, and low-population local governments are more concerned about recruitment problems than those with a high population. Finally, local governments that report that their public buildings are in good condition generally have fewer and less serious concerns, in line with what one could expect.<br />Originality/value: The paper offers insights into which concerns that are most important among local government facility managers.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 21713 46 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/16 46 1 Pub_Writer Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal 46 2 Pub_Title Concerns among local government facility managers 46 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_16.pdf 46 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">Purpose: To investigate which concerns are most important for local government facility managers in Norway.<br />Design: We analyze a survey dataset covering about 2/3 of all Norwegian local governments, using descriptive statistics techniques.<br />Findings: The facility managers are most worried about weak fiscal conditions and lack of political priority of facility management. Almost all facility managers report concerns about these issues, and the responses do not vary much across local governments with different characteristics. There is also widespread concern, albeit less serious, about organizational structure and recuitment problems. Local governments with a decentralized facility management are more concerned about the organizational structure than those with a centralized structure, and low-population local governments are more concerned about recruitment problems than those with a high population. Finally, local governments that report that their public buildings are in good condition generally have fewer and less serious concerns, in line with what one could expect.<br />Originality/value: The paper offers insights into which concerns that are most important among local government facility managers.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> 46 5 Pub_Type 1 46 6 Pub_Year 2016 46 7 Pub_OldID 0 46 8 20714 A08/16 Stein Ivar Steinshamn Predators in the market: Implications of market interaction on optimal resource management /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 08_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">A two-species bioeconomic model is analyzed, but in contrast to most similar models, there is no biological interaction between the species, only economic. The interaction takes place in the market where the quantity of either species may affect the price of the other. The effects of cross-price elasticities on the optimal steady state and on the optimal paths in the sole-owner case are investigated both analytically and numerically. First, it is shown that whether cross-price elasticities have impact on the steady state or not, depends heavily on the technology in the fishery (e.g. purse seine versus trawl). Further, in the case of linear demand functions, the steady state outcome depends solely on the sum of the cross-price parameters and not their individual values. This is shown analytically. Secondly, in the investigation of optimal paths, numeric methods must be resorted to. It is shown that cross-price elasticities have interesting effects on the paths. More precisely, when cross-price elasticities are present and are sufficiently high, the paths go from being monotonic to feature over- or undershooting.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20714 47 0 Pub_TypeNumber A08/16 47 1 Pub_Writer Stein Ivar Steinshamn 47 2 Pub_Title Predators in the market: Implications of market interaction on optimal resource management 47 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 08_16.pdf 47 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">A two-species bioeconomic model is analyzed, but in contrast to most similar models, there is no biological interaction between the species, only economic. The interaction takes place in the market where the quantity of either species may affect the price of the other. The effects of cross-price elasticities on the optimal steady state and on the optimal paths in the sole-owner case are investigated both analytically and numerically. First, it is shown that whether cross-price elasticities have impact on the steady state or not, depends heavily on the technology in the fishery (e.g. purse seine versus trawl). Further, in the case of linear demand functions, the steady state outcome depends solely on the sum of the cross-price parameters and not their individual values. This is shown analytically. Secondly, in the investigation of optimal paths, numeric methods must be resorted to. It is shown that cross-price elasticities have interesting effects on the paths. More precisely, when cross-price elasticities are present and are sufficiently high, the paths go from being monotonic to feature over- or undershooting.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> 47 5 Pub_Type 1 47 6 Pub_Year 2016 47 7 Pub_OldID 0 47 8 20713 A07/16 Eleonore Lazat and Trond Bjørndal The Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: Fast Crash and Swift Recovery for the Ferrari of the Ocean? /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 07_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna tastes delicious. Naturally, the Japanese sashimi market fights over this high value fish. Unfortunately, this moneymaking resource has been overfished since the 1970s due to its&rsquo; wide geographical spread and high sea open access characteristic, which means over 25 countries sought to capture it. This cumulated in near extinction of the species in the mid-2000s. The organisation in charge of managing the stock, the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), established a fifteen-year species recovery plan starting in 2006-2007. The plan includes fishing seasons, gear restrictions, quantity control and strict monitoring of vessels. Ten years into the programme, this project sets out to assess the state of the stock. Quantitative indicators will enable assessing the health of the stock, and qualitative methods will evaluate the managerial success of the recovery programme, in terms of member compliance and caution adopted with regard to the stock. Results of the research show the stock is en-route to recovery. Population indicators are recovering faster than expected. Recommendations, such as educational courses on stock sustainability for fishermen or knowledge-access incentives to comply, will hopefully reach the ICCAT to adapt the programme for the remaining five years.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20713 48 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/16 48 1 Pub_Writer Eleonore Lazat and Trond Bjørndal 48 2 Pub_Title The Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: Fast Crash and Swift Recovery for the Ferrari of the Ocean? 48 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 07_16.pdf 48 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna tastes delicious. Naturally, the Japanese sashimi market fights over this high value fish. Unfortunately, this moneymaking resource has been overfished since the 1970s due to its&rsquo; wide geographical spread and high sea open access characteristic, which means over 25 countries sought to capture it. This cumulated in near extinction of the species in the mid-2000s. The organisation in charge of managing the stock, the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), established a fifteen-year species recovery plan starting in 2006-2007. The plan includes fishing seasons, gear restrictions, quantity control and strict monitoring of vessels. Ten years into the programme, this project sets out to assess the state of the stock. Quantitative indicators will enable assessing the health of the stock, and qualitative methods will evaluate the managerial success of the recovery programme, in terms of member compliance and caution adopted with regard to the stock. Results of the research show the stock is en-route to recovery. Population indicators are recovering faster than expected. Recommendations, such as educational courses on stock sustainability for fishermen or knowledge-access incentives to comply, will hopefully reach the ICCAT to adapt the programme for the remaining five years.</p> 48 5 Pub_Type 1 48 6 Pub_Year 2016 48 7 Pub_OldID 0 48 8 20712 R05/16 Frode Skjeret, Kåre Petter Hagen og Linda Nøstbakken Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av Veterinærinstituttets innsats innen fiskehelse /Files/Filer/Publications/R05_16.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 20712 49 0 Pub_TypeNumber R05/16 49 1 Pub_Writer Frode Skjeret, Kåre Petter Hagen og Linda Nøstbakken 49 2 Pub_Title Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av Veterinærinstituttets innsats innen fiskehelse 49 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R05_16.pdf 49 4 Pub_AbstractEn 49 5 Pub_Type 2 49 6 Pub_Year 2016 49 7 Pub_OldID 0 49 8