Siste publikasjoner

41000 Transportation Research Part E 155, 102495 (2021) Gabriel Fuentes Generating bunkering statistics from AIS data: A machine learning approach /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 41000 0 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part E 155, 102495 (2021) 0 1 Pub_Writer Gabriel Fuentes 0 2 Pub_Title Generating bunkering statistics from AIS data: A machine learning approach 0 3 Pub_Publication /Files 0 4 Pub_AbstractEn 0 5 Pub_Type 3 0 6 Pub_Year 2021 0 7 Pub_OldID 0 0 8 40999 The Manchester School (2021) Armando J. Garcia Pires Net neutrality and content provision /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40999 1 0 Pub_TypeNumber The Manchester School (2021) 1 1 Pub_Writer Armando J. Garcia Pires 1 2 Pub_Title Net neutrality and content provision 1 3 Pub_Publication /Files 1 4 Pub_AbstractEn 1 5 Pub_Type 3 1 6 Pub_Year 2021 1 7 Pub_OldID 0 1 8 40998 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2021) Julie S. Ågnes Gaining and Training a Digital Colleague: Employee Responses to Robotization /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40998 2 0 Pub_TypeNumber The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2021) 2 1 Pub_Writer Julie S. Ågnes 2 2 Pub_Title Gaining and Training a Digital Colleague: Employee Responses to Robotization 2 3 Pub_Publication /Files 2 4 Pub_AbstractEn 2 5 Pub_Type 3 2 6 Pub_Year 2021 2 7 Pub_OldID 0 2 8 40997 Maritime Policy & Management (2021) Nguyen Khoi Tran, Jasmine Siu Lee Lam, Haiying Jia & Roar Adland Emissions from container vessels in the port of Singapore /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40997 3 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Policy & Management (2021) 3 1 Pub_Writer Nguyen Khoi Tran, Jasmine Siu Lee Lam, Haiying Jia & Roar Adland 3 2 Pub_Title Emissions from container vessels in the port of Singapore 3 3 Pub_Publication /Files 3 4 Pub_AbstractEn 3 5 Pub_Type 3 3 6 Pub_Year 2021 3 7 Pub_OldID 0 3 8 40996 Maritime Policy & Management (2021) Roar Adland, Lars Eirik Anestad & Bjarte Abrahamsen Statistical arbitrage in the freight options market /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40996 4 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Policy & Management (2021) 4 1 Pub_Writer Roar Adland, Lars Eirik Anestad & Bjarte Abrahamsen 4 2 Pub_Title Statistical arbitrage in the freight options market 4 3 Pub_Publication /Files 4 4 Pub_AbstractEn 4 5 Pub_Type 3 4 6 Pub_Year 2021 4 7 Pub_OldID 0 4 8 40995 Journal of Environmental Management, 300, 113794 (2021) Negar Akbari, Francesc Maynou, Trond Bjørndal, Pierre Failler, Benjamin Drakeford and Andy Forse Scenarios of profitability of western Mediterranean demersal fisheries in an effort control regime /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40995 5 0 Pub_TypeNumber Journal of Environmental Management, 300, 113794 (2021) 5 1 Pub_Writer Negar Akbari, Francesc Maynou, Trond Bjørndal, Pierre Failler, Benjamin Drakeford and Andy Forse 5 2 Pub_Title Scenarios of profitability of western Mediterranean demersal fisheries in an effort control regime 5 3 Pub_Publication /Files 5 4 Pub_AbstractEn 5 5 Pub_Type 3 5 6 Pub_Year 2021 5 7 Pub_OldID 0 5 8 40994 Marine Policy, 133 (2021) Keita Abe, Yusuke Matsuki, Gakushi Ishimura and Shunsuke Managi Rent distribution in an ex-vessel auction market of fisheries /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40994 6 0 Pub_TypeNumber Marine Policy, 133 (2021) 6 1 Pub_Writer Keita Abe, Yusuke Matsuki, Gakushi Ishimura and Shunsuke Managi 6 2 Pub_Title Rent distribution in an ex-vessel auction market of fisheries 6 3 Pub_Publication /Files 6 4 Pub_AbstractEn 6 5 Pub_Type 3 6 6 Pub_Year 2021 6 7 Pub_OldID 0 6 8 40993 ICES Journal of Marine Science (2021) Tannaz Alizadeh and Keita Abe Intra- and inter-temporal effort allocation and profit-maximizing strategy of trawl fishery /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40993 7 0 Pub_TypeNumber ICES Journal of Marine Science (2021) 7 1 Pub_Writer Tannaz Alizadeh and Keita Abe 7 2 Pub_Title Intra- and inter-temporal effort allocation and profit-maximizing strategy of trawl fishery 7 3 Pub_Publication /Files 7 4 Pub_AbstractEn 7 5 Pub_Type 3 7 6 Pub_Year 2021 7 7 Pub_OldID 0 7 8 40992 Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 154, 1-16 (2021) Yewen Gu and Stein William Wallace Operational benefits of autonomous vessels in logistics - A case of autonomous water-taxis in Bergen /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40992 8 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 154, 1-16 (2021) 8 1 Pub_Writer Yewen Gu and Stein William Wallace 8 2 Pub_Title Operational benefits of autonomous vessels in logistics - A case of autonomous water-taxis in Bergen 8 3 Pub_Publication /Files 8 4 Pub_AbstractEn 8 5 Pub_Type 3 8 6 Pub_Year 2021 8 7 Pub_OldID 0 8 8 40991 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 183, 129-157 (2021) Alexander Wright Cappelen, Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, Donald Mmari, Ingrid Hoem Sjursen and Bertil Tungodden Understanding the resource curse: A large-scale experiment on corruption in Tanzania /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40991 9 0 Pub_TypeNumber Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 183, 129-157 (2021) 9 1 Pub_Writer Alexander Wright Cappelen, Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, Donald Mmari, Ingrid Hoem Sjursen and Bertil Tungodden 9 2 Pub_Title Understanding the resource curse: A large-scale experiment on corruption in Tanzania 9 3 Pub_Publication /Files 9 4 Pub_AbstractEn 9 5 Pub_Type 3 9 6 Pub_Year 2021 9 7 Pub_OldID 0 9 8 40990 Marine Policy, 125 (2021) Florian Klaus Diekert, Linda Nøstbakken and Andries Peter Richter Control activities and compliance behavior - Survey evidence from Norway /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40990 10 0 Pub_TypeNumber Marine Policy, 125 (2021) 10 1 Pub_Writer Florian Klaus Diekert, Linda Nøstbakken and Andries Peter Richter 10 2 Pub_Title Control activities and compliance behavior - Survey evidence from Norway 10 3 Pub_Publication /Files 10 4 Pub_AbstractEn 10 5 Pub_Type 3 10 6 Pub_Year 2021 10 7 Pub_OldID 0 10 8 40989 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021) Kjetil Bjorvatn, Mathias Ekström and Armando J. Garcia Pires Setting goals for keystone habits improves labor market prospects and life satisfaction for unemployed youth: Experimental evidence from Norway /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40989 11 0 Pub_TypeNumber Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021) 11 1 Pub_Writer Kjetil Bjorvatn, Mathias Ekström and Armando J. Garcia Pires 11 2 Pub_Title Setting goals for keystone habits improves labor market prospects and life satisfaction for unemployed youth: Experimental evidence from Norway 11 3 Pub_Publication /Files 11 4 Pub_AbstractEn 11 5 Pub_Type 3 11 6 Pub_Year 2021 11 7 Pub_OldID 0 11 8 40988 Agribusiness (2021) Frank Asche, Hans-Martin Straume and Erling Vårdal Perish or prosper: Trade patterns for highly perishable seafood products /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40988 12 0 Pub_TypeNumber Agribusiness (2021) 12 1 Pub_Writer Frank Asche, Hans-Martin Straume and Erling Vårdal 12 2 Pub_Title Perish or prosper: Trade patterns for highly perishable seafood products 12 3 Pub_Publication /Files 12 4 Pub_AbstractEn 12 5 Pub_Type 3 12 6 Pub_Year 2021 12 7 Pub_OldID 0 12 8 40987 Maritime Policy & Management Roar Adland, Haiying Jia, Hans Christian Olsen Harvei & Julius Jørgensen Second-hand vessel valuation: an extreme gradient boosting approach /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40987 13 0 Pub_TypeNumber Maritime Policy & Management 13 1 Pub_Writer Roar Adland, Haiying Jia, Hans Christian Olsen Harvei & Julius Jørgensen 13 2 Pub_Title Second-hand vessel valuation: an extreme gradient boosting approach 13 3 Pub_Publication /Files 13 4 Pub_AbstractEn 13 5 Pub_Type 3 13 6 Pub_Year 2021 13 7 Pub_OldID 0 13 8 40986 International Journal of Managing Projects in Business (2021) Torstein Nesheim Exploring the resource manager role in a project-based organization /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40986 14 0 Pub_TypeNumber International Journal of Managing Projects in Business (2021) 14 1 Pub_Writer Torstein Nesheim 14 2 Pub_Title Exploring the resource manager role in a project-based organization 14 3 Pub_Publication /Files 14 4 Pub_AbstractEn 14 5 Pub_Type 3 14 6 Pub_Year 2021 14 7 Pub_OldID 0 14 8 40985 A10/21 Øystein Foros, Halvar Helgø og Thea Kilstad Dagligvaremarkedet: Fremmer forbrukerjournalistikk som VGs matbørs konkurransen? /Files 1 2021 0 PubID 40985 15 0 Pub_TypeNumber A10/21 15 1 Pub_Writer Øystein Foros, Halvar Helgø og Thea Kilstad 15 2 Pub_Title Dagligvaremarkedet: Fremmer forbrukerjournalistikk som VGs matbørs konkurransen? 15 3 Pub_Publication /Files 15 4 Pub_AbstractEn 15 5 Pub_Type 1 15 6 Pub_Year 2021 15 7 Pub_OldID 0 15 8 40984 A09/21 Maren Gillebo and Kamilla Sundkvist The Importance of Multi-Homing: Merger Implications in the Digital Newspaper Market /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_21.pdf In this paper we analyse how mergers between a subgroup of digital newspapers affect media consumers, the newspapers, and the advertisers. Contrary to most of the existing literature, we endogenise the newspapers’ quality decisions. It turns out that the effects depend crucially on whether we assume that consumers single-home (buy access to only one newspaper) or multi-home (buy access to more than one newspaper). Strikingly, we find that a merger increases the average newspaper quality under single-homing. Consumer surplus nonetheless falls. The intuition behind this result is essentially that the merging newspapers will use their increased market power to charge higher consumer prices and invest less in journalistic quality. This harms consumers who intrinsically prefer the editorial profile of the merging newspapers. Under multi-homing, on the other hand, we find that a merger will have no effect on either consumer prices or quality levels, and consumer surplus is thus left unchanged. The advertisers are harmed by the merger under multi-homing, but the lost advertiser surplus is extracted by the newspapers. 1 2021 0 PubID 40984 16 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/21 16 1 Pub_Writer Maren Gillebo and Kamilla Sundkvist 16 2 Pub_Title The Importance of Multi-Homing: Merger Implications in the Digital Newspaper Market 16 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_21.pdf 16 4 Pub_AbstractEn In this paper we analyse how mergers between a subgroup of digital newspapers affect media consumers, the newspapers, and the advertisers. Contrary to most of the existing literature, we endogenise the newspapers’ quality decisions. It turns out that the effects depend crucially on whether we assume that consumers single-home (buy access to only one newspaper) or multi-home (buy access to more than one newspaper). Strikingly, we find that a merger increases the average newspaper quality under single-homing. Consumer surplus nonetheless falls. The intuition behind this result is essentially that the merging newspapers will use their increased market power to charge higher consumer prices and invest less in journalistic quality. This harms consumers who intrinsically prefer the editorial profile of the merging newspapers. Under multi-homing, on the other hand, we find that a merger will have no effect on either consumer prices or quality levels, and consumer surplus is thus left unchanged. The advertisers are harmed by the merger under multi-homing, but the lost advertiser surplus is extracted by the newspapers. 16 5 Pub_Type 1 16 6 Pub_Year 2021 16 7 Pub_OldID 0 16 8 40983 The Journal of Development Studies (2021) Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge and Armando José Garcia Pires Measuring Spillover Effects from an Entrepreneurship Programme: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Tanzania /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40983 17 0 Pub_TypeNumber The Journal of Development Studies (2021) 17 1 Pub_Writer Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge and Armando José Garcia Pires 17 2 Pub_Title Measuring Spillover Effects from an Entrepreneurship Programme: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Tanzania 17 3 Pub_Publication /Files 17 4 Pub_AbstractEn 17 5 Pub_Type 3 17 6 Pub_Year 2021 17 7 Pub_OldID 0 17 8 40982 Fisheries Management: An Overview (2021) Ana Brasão, Trond Bjørndal and Gordon Munro In: Leal Filho, W., Azul, A.M., Brandli, L., Lange Salvia, A. and Wall, T. (eds.): Life Below Water. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Springer, Cham. /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40982 18 0 Pub_TypeNumber Fisheries Management: An Overview (2021) 18 1 Pub_Writer Ana Brasão, Trond Bjørndal and Gordon Munro 18 2 Pub_Title In: Leal Filho, W., Azul, A.M., Brandli, L., Lange Salvia, A. and Wall, T. (eds.): Life Below Water. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Springer, Cham. 18 3 Pub_Publication /Files 18 4 Pub_AbstractEn 18 5 Pub_Type 3 18 6 Pub_Year 2021 18 7 Pub_OldID 0 18 8 40981 Waste Biomass Valor (2021) Vlastimír Nevrlý, Radovan Somplák, Lenka Szásziová, Jaroslav Pluskal and Vit Procházka Offshore Conceptual Plastic Waste Collection and Treatment Towards Clean Ocean /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40981 19 0 Pub_TypeNumber Waste Biomass Valor (2021) 19 1 Pub_Writer Vlastimír Nevrlý, Radovan Somplák, Lenka Szásziová, Jaroslav Pluskal and Vit Procházka 19 2 Pub_Title Offshore Conceptual Plastic Waste Collection and Treatment Towards Clean Ocean 19 3 Pub_Publication /Files 19 4 Pub_AbstractEn 19 5 Pub_Type 3 19 6 Pub_Year 2021 19 7 Pub_OldID 0 19 8 40980 A06/21 Trond Bjørndal The Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna Fishery: Back from the Brink? /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_21.pdf At the turn of the century, the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna stock (BFT) appeared to be severely overexploited with some commentators believing it was heading towards collapse. In 2006, a 15-year recovery plan was introduced with the purpose of restoring the stock to a level corresponding to maximum sustainable yield (MSY) with a probability of at least 50%. Stock size is now increasing, which has permitted higher TACs in recent years. In fact, the stock is now believed to be sustainably harvested. This represents a total turnaround from the situation of less than 15 years ago. The fishery is managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), a Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (RFMO) in accordance with the 1995 United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement. BFT is classified as a highly migratory stock harvested by a large number of countries. Several authors have questioned the effectiveness of RFMOs. This paper analyses how cooperation has been achieved for BFT and whether the current cooperative management regime is stable, so as to see what lessons it holds for RFMO management, in particular when it comes to highly migratory stocks. 1 2021 0 PubID 40980 20 0 Pub_TypeNumber A06/21 20 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal 20 2 Pub_Title The Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna Fishery: Back from the Brink? 20 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_21.pdf 20 4 Pub_AbstractEn At the turn of the century, the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna stock (BFT) appeared to be severely overexploited with some commentators believing it was heading towards collapse. In 2006, a 15-year recovery plan was introduced with the purpose of restoring the stock to a level corresponding to maximum sustainable yield (MSY) with a probability of at least 50%. Stock size is now increasing, which has permitted higher TACs in recent years. In fact, the stock is now believed to be sustainably harvested. This represents a total turnaround from the situation of less than 15 years ago. The fishery is managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), a Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (RFMO) in accordance with the 1995 United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement. BFT is classified as a highly migratory stock harvested by a large number of countries. Several authors have questioned the effectiveness of RFMOs. This paper analyses how cooperation has been achieved for BFT and whether the current cooperative management regime is stable, so as to see what lessons it holds for RFMO management, in particular when it comes to highly migratory stocks. 20 5 Pub_Type 1 20 6 Pub_Year 2021 20 7 Pub_OldID 0 20 8 40979 Marine Policy, 132, 104669 (2021) Trond Bjørndal and Gordon R. Munro A game theoretic perspective on the management of shared North Sea fishery resources: Pre and post Brexit /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40979 21 0 Pub_TypeNumber Marine Policy, 132, 104669 (2021) 21 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal and Gordon R. Munro 21 2 Pub_Title A game theoretic perspective on the management of shared North Sea fishery resources: Pre and post Brexit 21 3 Pub_Publication /Files 21 4 Pub_AbstractEn 21 5 Pub_Type 3 21 6 Pub_Year 2021 21 7 Pub_OldID 0 21 8 40978 The Economic Journal (2021) Julian Vedeler Johnsen, Kjell Vaage and Alexander Willén Interactions in Public Policies: Spousal Responses and Program Spillovers of Welfare Reforms /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40978 22 0 Pub_TypeNumber The Economic Journal (2021) 22 1 Pub_Writer Julian Vedeler Johnsen, Kjell Vaage and Alexander Willén 22 2 Pub_Title Interactions in Public Policies: Spousal Responses and Program Spillovers of Welfare Reforms 22 3 Pub_Publication /Files 22 4 Pub_AbstractEn 22 5 Pub_Type 3 22 6 Pub_Year 2021 22 7 Pub_OldID 0 22 8 40977 A08/21 Ole-Andreas Elvik Naess Unbiased Media /Files/Filer/Publications/A08_21.pdf A large literature has analyzed media bias, but the question of identifying unbiased media behavior has received less attention. I address the topic of unbiasedness in a setting where a media firm engages in journalism that may affect the electoral outcome for political parties. I provide a characterization of the set of unbiased media strategies. I find that there are multiple strategies for unbiased media coverage, and that the choice of unbiased strategy will have electoral consequences. Because the electoral game is zero-sum, political parties will prefer different unbiased strategies. This paper rationalizes partisan differences in views about media bias. 1 2021 0 PubID 40977 23 0 Pub_TypeNumber A08/21 23 1 Pub_Writer Ole-Andreas Elvik Naess 23 2 Pub_Title Unbiased Media 23 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A08_21.pdf 23 4 Pub_AbstractEn A large literature has analyzed media bias, but the question of identifying unbiased media behavior has received less attention. I address the topic of unbiasedness in a setting where a media firm engages in journalism that may affect the electoral outcome for political parties. I provide a characterization of the set of unbiased media strategies. I find that there are multiple strategies for unbiased media coverage, and that the choice of unbiased strategy will have electoral consequences. Because the electoral game is zero-sum, political parties will prefer different unbiased strategies. This paper rationalizes partisan differences in views about media bias. 23 5 Pub_Type 1 23 6 Pub_Year 2021 23 7 Pub_OldID 0 23 8 40976 A07/21 Charlotte Bjørnhaug Evensen and Atle Haugen The impact of targeting technologies and consumer multi-homing on digital platform competition /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_21.pdf In this paper, we address how targeting and consumer multi-homing impact platform competition and market equilibria in two-sided markets. We analyze platforms that are financed by both advertising and subscription fees, and let them adopt a targeting technology with increasing performance in audience size: a larger audience generates more consumer data, which improves the platforms’ targeting ability and allows them to extract more ad revenues. Targeting therefore increases the importance of attracting consumers. Previous literature has shown that this could result in fierce price competition if consumers subscribe to only one platform (i.e. single-home). Surprisingly, we find that pure single-homing possibly does not constitute a Nash equilibrium. Instead, platforms might rationally set prices that induce consumers to subscribe to more than one platform (i.e. multi-home). With multi-homing, a platform’s audience size is not restricted by the number of subscribers on rival platforms. Hence, multi-homing softens the competition over consumers. We show that this might imply that equilibrium profit is higher with than without targeting, in sharp contrast to what previous literature predicts. 1 2021 0 PubID 40976 24 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/21 24 1 Pub_Writer Charlotte Bjørnhaug Evensen and Atle Haugen 24 2 Pub_Title The impact of targeting technologies and consumer multi-homing on digital platform competition 24 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_21.pdf 24 4 Pub_AbstractEn In this paper, we address how targeting and consumer multi-homing impact platform competition and market equilibria in two-sided markets. We analyze platforms that are financed by both advertising and subscription fees, and let them adopt a targeting technology with increasing performance in audience size: a larger audience generates more consumer data, which improves the platforms’ targeting ability and allows them to extract more ad revenues. Targeting therefore increases the importance of attracting consumers. Previous literature has shown that this could result in fierce price competition if consumers subscribe to only one platform (i.e. single-home). Surprisingly, we find that pure single-homing possibly does not constitute a Nash equilibrium. Instead, platforms might rationally set prices that induce consumers to subscribe to more than one platform (i.e. multi-home). With multi-homing, a platform’s audience size is not restricted by the number of subscribers on rival platforms. Hence, multi-homing softens the competition over consumers. We show that this might imply that equilibrium profit is higher with than without targeting, in sharp contrast to what previous literature predicts. 24 5 Pub_Type 1 24 6 Pub_Year 2021 24 7 Pub_OldID 0 24 8 40975 A04/21 Steffen Juranek, Øivind A. Nilsen and Simen A. Ulsaker Bank consolidation, interest rates, and risk: A post-merger analysis based on loan-level data from the corporate sector /Files/Filer/Publications/A04_21.pdf In this paper we analyse the bank merger between DnB and Gjensidige Bank in 2003, ranked by market share as number one and number three in the Norwegian bank market. Focusing on loans to firms, the merger led to an immediately higher concentration in the banking market, but this concentration decreased in the following years. Looking only at new loans, the increase in concentration was not greater in affected markets (markets where both merging parties were present) compared to unaffected markets. The interest rate tended to be lower in the affected markets relative to unaffected markets, but this relationship was weak and not statistically significant. The merger also seemed to affect the riskiness of loans only marginally. These weak effects could be the result of efficiency gains in the form of lower costs being pass-through to customers, and the increased market power (and consequently higher interest rates) cancelled each other out. The remedial measures imposed by the Norwegian Competition Authority on the two merging parties are also likely to explain some of the modest effects of the merger. The weak effects are largely coincident with international literature showing the effects of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector to be modest. 1 2021 0 PubID 40975 25 0 Pub_TypeNumber A04/21 25 1 Pub_Writer Steffen Juranek, Øivind A. Nilsen and Simen A. Ulsaker 25 2 Pub_Title Bank consolidation, interest rates, and risk: A post-merger analysis based on loan-level data from the corporate sector 25 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A04_21.pdf 25 4 Pub_AbstractEn In this paper we analyse the bank merger between DnB and Gjensidige Bank in 2003, ranked by market share as number one and number three in the Norwegian bank market. Focusing on loans to firms, the merger led to an immediately higher concentration in the banking market, but this concentration decreased in the following years. Looking only at new loans, the increase in concentration was not greater in affected markets (markets where both merging parties were present) compared to unaffected markets. The interest rate tended to be lower in the affected markets relative to unaffected markets, but this relationship was weak and not statistically significant. The merger also seemed to affect the riskiness of loans only marginally. These weak effects could be the result of efficiency gains in the form of lower costs being pass-through to customers, and the increased market power (and consequently higher interest rates) cancelled each other out. The remedial measures imposed by the Norwegian Competition Authority on the two merging parties are also likely to explain some of the modest effects of the merger. The weak effects are largely coincident with international literature showing the effects of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector to be modest. 25 5 Pub_Type 1 25 6 Pub_Year 2021 25 7 Pub_OldID 0 25 8 40974 European Journal of Operational Research (2021) Evangelos Toumasatos, Leif Kristoffer Sandal and Stein Ivar Steinshamn Keep it in house or sell it abroad? A framework to evaluate fairness /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40974 26 0 Pub_TypeNumber European Journal of Operational Research (2021) 26 1 Pub_Writer Evangelos Toumasatos, Leif Kristoffer Sandal and Stein Ivar Steinshamn 26 2 Pub_Title Keep it in house or sell it abroad? A framework to evaluate fairness 26 3 Pub_Publication /Files 26 4 Pub_AbstractEn 26 5 Pub_Type 3 26 6 Pub_Year 2021 26 7 Pub_OldID 0 26 8 40973 Marine Policy, 131, 104622 (2021) Trond Bjørndal, Torben Foss, Gordon R. Munro and Mogens Schou Brexit and consequences for quota sharing in the Barents Sea cod fishery /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40973 27 0 Pub_TypeNumber Marine Policy, 131, 104622 (2021) 27 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal, Torben Foss, Gordon R. Munro and Mogens Schou 27 2 Pub_Title Brexit and consequences for quota sharing in the Barents Sea cod fishery 27 3 Pub_Publication /Files 27 4 Pub_AbstractEn 27 5 Pub_Type 3 27 6 Pub_Year 2021 27 7 Pub_OldID 0 27 8 40972 Magma, nr. 3, 94-103 (2021) Synnøve Nesse og Tove Frykmer Politisk-administrativ ledelse i Norge og Sverige under pandemien: Forskjell i ansvarsstrategi, kapasitet og legitimitet /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40972 28 0 Pub_TypeNumber Magma, nr. 3, 94-103 (2021) 28 1 Pub_Writer Synnøve Nesse og Tove Frykmer 28 2 Pub_Title Politisk-administrativ ledelse i Norge og Sverige under pandemien: Forskjell i ansvarsstrategi, kapasitet og legitimitet 28 3 Pub_Publication /Files 28 4 Pub_AbstractEn 28 5 Pub_Type 3 28 6 Pub_Year 2021 28 7 Pub_OldID 0 28 8 40971 Magma, nr. 3, 80-86 (2021) Birthe Kaafjord Lange og Monica Rydland Krise - håndbrekk eller brekkstang for strategisk endring? /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40971 29 0 Pub_TypeNumber Magma, nr. 3, 80-86 (2021) 29 1 Pub_Writer Birthe Kaafjord Lange og Monica Rydland 29 2 Pub_Title Krise - håndbrekk eller brekkstang for strategisk endring? 29 3 Pub_Publication /Files 29 4 Pub_AbstractEn 29 5 Pub_Type 3 29 6 Pub_Year 2021 29 7 Pub_OldID 0 29 8 40970 European Journal of Epidemiology (2021) Hans Hvide, Julian Vedeler Johnsen and Kjell Gunnar Salvanes Parental age and birth defects: A sibling study /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40970 30 0 Pub_TypeNumber European Journal of Epidemiology (2021) 30 1 Pub_Writer Hans Hvide, Julian Vedeler Johnsen and Kjell Gunnar Salvanes 30 2 Pub_Title Parental age and birth defects: A sibling study 30 3 Pub_Publication /Files 30 4 Pub_AbstractEn 30 5 Pub_Type 3 30 6 Pub_Year 2021 30 7 Pub_OldID 0 30 8 40969 Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 10, 100380 (2021) Esko Lehtonen, Fanny Malin, Satu Innamaa, Sina Nordhoff, Tyron Louw, Afsaneh Bjorvatn and Natasha Merat Are multimodal travellers going to abandon sustainable travel for L3 automated vehicles? /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 40969 31 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 10, 100380 (2021) 31 1 Pub_Writer Esko Lehtonen, Fanny Malin, Satu Innamaa, Sina Nordhoff, Tyron Louw, Afsaneh Bjorvatn and Natasha Merat 31 2 Pub_Title Are multimodal travellers going to abandon sustainable travel for L3 automated vehicles? 31 3 Pub_Publication /Files 31 4 Pub_AbstractEn 31 5 Pub_Type 3 31 6 Pub_Year 2021 31 7 Pub_OldID 0 31 8 39969 R13/20 Bernhard Scholda The Impact of Team-Level Norms and Team Charters on the Performance-Trajectories of Work-Teams /Files/Filer/Publications/R13_20.pdf The emergence of team-level norms and their impact on team-level outcome variables over time is a recurring, yet under-researched topic. Recently, with the increasing application of teams by organizations and factors such as higher interdisciplinarity and dispersion further challenging teamwork processes, the upfront establishment of team charters has been suggested as a promising tool for triggering these norms and thus providing for more effective cooperation. In this context, a total of 32 articles was analyzed, giving a wide-ranged view on the status quo of the relevant literature, as well as highlighting considerable gaps of knowledge that future research should aim to address. 2 2020 0 PubID 39969 32 0 Pub_TypeNumber R13/20 32 1 Pub_Writer Bernhard Scholda 32 2 Pub_Title The Impact of Team-Level Norms and Team Charters on the Performance-Trajectories of Work-Teams 32 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R13_20.pdf 32 4 Pub_AbstractEn The emergence of team-level norms and their impact on team-level outcome variables over time is a recurring, yet under-researched topic. Recently, with the increasing application of teams by organizations and factors such as higher interdisciplinarity and dispersion further challenging teamwork processes, the upfront establishment of team charters has been suggested as a promising tool for triggering these norms and thus providing for more effective cooperation. In this context, a total of 32 articles was analyzed, giving a wide-ranged view on the status quo of the relevant literature, as well as highlighting considerable gaps of knowledge that future research should aim to address. 32 5 Pub_Type 2 32 6 Pub_Year 2020 32 7 Pub_OldID 0 32 8 38975 Economic Analysis and Policy, 71(12), 198-210 (2021) Daniel V. Gordon, R. Quentin Grafton and Stein Ivar Steinshamn Cross-country effects and policy responses to COVID-19 in 2020: The Nordic countries /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 38975 33 0 Pub_TypeNumber Economic Analysis and Policy, 71(12), 198-210 (2021) 33 1 Pub_Writer Daniel V. Gordon, R. Quentin Grafton and Stein Ivar Steinshamn 33 2 Pub_Title Cross-country effects and policy responses to COVID-19 in 2020: The Nordic countries 33 3 Pub_Publication /Files 33 4 Pub_AbstractEn 33 5 Pub_Type 3 33 6 Pub_Year 2021 33 7 Pub_OldID 0 33 8 38974 R12/20 Carlo Filippo Pedretti To what extent does transformational leadership impact employees’ innovative behaviors through the mediation of their prosocial motivation? /Files/Filer/Publications/R12_20.pdf The inner aim of the present research was to investigate to what extent a transformational leadership approach is able to impact employees’ innovative behaviors. In doing so, a third variable has been considered, namely prosocial motivation. Specifically, the latter has been taken into account from its state-like perspective and has been included in the current study as a mediator, capable of explaining the aforementioned relationship. From this standpoint, the related research model has been afterwards tested within a Norwegian company operating internationally in the medical industry and driven by the prosocial mission of “helping save lives”. Thanks to the examination of data gathered through a survey strategy, it was possible to corroborate the hypothesis proposing the existence of a positive impact of transformational leadership on employees’ innovative behaviors. Moreover, evidence was also found supporting the idea that the previous impact was significantly mediated by workers’ state-like prosocial motivation. In greater detail, it was rational to talk about partial mediation, since the effect generated by this construct was a negative one. Finally, the conclusive chapters of the research discussed its implications both theoretically and practically, as well as its limitations and future paths of analysis. 2 2020 0 PubID 38974 34 0 Pub_TypeNumber R12/20 34 1 Pub_Writer Carlo Filippo Pedretti 34 2 Pub_Title To what extent does transformational leadership impact employees’ innovative behaviors through the mediation of their prosocial motivation? 34 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R12_20.pdf 34 4 Pub_AbstractEn The inner aim of the present research was to investigate to what extent a transformational leadership approach is able to impact employees’ innovative behaviors. In doing so, a third variable has been considered, namely prosocial motivation. Specifically, the latter has been taken into account from its state-like perspective and has been included in the current study as a mediator, capable of explaining the aforementioned relationship. From this standpoint, the related research model has been afterwards tested within a Norwegian company operating internationally in the medical industry and driven by the prosocial mission of “helping save lives”. Thanks to the examination of data gathered through a survey strategy, it was possible to corroborate the hypothesis proposing the existence of a positive impact of transformational leadership on employees’ innovative behaviors. Moreover, evidence was also found supporting the idea that the previous impact was significantly mediated by workers’ state-like prosocial motivation. In greater detail, it was rational to talk about partial mediation, since the effect generated by this construct was a negative one. Finally, the conclusive chapters of the research discussed its implications both theoretically and practically, as well as its limitations and future paths of analysis. 34 5 Pub_Type 2 34 6 Pub_Year 2020 34 7 Pub_OldID 0 34 8 38973 R11/20 Ida Munch Aanonsen og Kristoffer Fure Psykologisk trygghet i veletablerte team. En eksplorerende casestudie av hvilken betydning endring fra fysisk til virtuelt samarbeid har for psykologisk trygghet /Files/Filer/Publications/R11_20_(1).pdf 2 2020 0 PubID 38973 35 0 Pub_TypeNumber R11/20 35 1 Pub_Writer Ida Munch Aanonsen og Kristoffer Fure 35 2 Pub_Title Psykologisk trygghet i veletablerte team. En eksplorerende casestudie av hvilken betydning endring fra fysisk til virtuelt samarbeid har for psykologisk trygghet 35 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R11_20_(1).pdf 35 4 Pub_AbstractEn 35 5 Pub_Type 2 35 6 Pub_Year 2020 35 7 Pub_OldID 0 35 8 38971 R10/20 John Martin Frankendal and Shayan Ghanbarisaied Enabling Innovation Through an Ecosystem. An Exploratory Case Study /Files/Filer/Publications/R10_20.pdf Moreover, the methodological approach chosen to answer the research objectives is a qualitative case study with an explorative design. A mix centred around both a deductive and inductive approach to theoretical development has been utilized. Furthermore, the main data source has been semi-structured interviews held with eight company representatives at seven different occasions. The interviewees come from the ecosystem facilitator, as well as five project members, who were all relevant in relation to the researched case project of insurance fraud. The findings showed that innovation was enabled in the context of the ecosystem and the insurance fraud project throughout six different subcategories. The subcategories, related to the innovation, inside the ecosystem consist of access, interface, and incentives. Subsequently, the three categories relevant to innovation inside the project are supporting specialists, entrustment, and neutral organizer. Through these six categories, innovation has been enabled in the researched setting. Thus, the research show that certain prerequisites could help to enable innovation inside an ecosystem. Incorporating the above-mentioned key success factors can help future innovation initiatives within ecosystems to flourish. 2 2020 0 PubID 38971 36 0 Pub_TypeNumber R10/20 36 1 Pub_Writer John Martin Frankendal and Shayan Ghanbarisaied 36 2 Pub_Title Enabling Innovation Through an Ecosystem. An Exploratory Case Study 36 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R10_20.pdf 36 4 Pub_AbstractEn Moreover, the methodological approach chosen to answer the research objectives is a qualitative case study with an explorative design. A mix centred around both a deductive and inductive approach to theoretical development has been utilized. Furthermore, the main data source has been semi-structured interviews held with eight company representatives at seven different occasions. The interviewees come from the ecosystem facilitator, as well as five project members, who were all relevant in relation to the researched case project of insurance fraud. The findings showed that innovation was enabled in the context of the ecosystem and the insurance fraud project throughout six different subcategories. The subcategories, related to the innovation, inside the ecosystem consist of access, interface, and incentives. Subsequently, the three categories relevant to innovation inside the project are supporting specialists, entrustment, and neutral organizer. Through these six categories, innovation has been enabled in the researched setting. Thus, the research show that certain prerequisites could help to enable innovation inside an ecosystem. Incorporating the above-mentioned key success factors can help future innovation initiatives within ecosystems to flourish. 36 5 Pub_Type 2 36 6 Pub_Year 2020 36 7 Pub_OldID 0 36 8 38968 Collabra: Psychology (2021) Simon Bø, Hallgeir Sjåstad and Elisabeth Norman Working for the Best or Bracing for the Worst? Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Planning /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 38968 37 0 Pub_TypeNumber Collabra: Psychology (2021) 37 1 Pub_Writer Simon Bø, Hallgeir Sjåstad and Elisabeth Norman 37 2 Pub_Title Working for the Best or Bracing for the Worst? Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Planning 37 3 Pub_Publication /Files 37 4 Pub_AbstractEn 37 5 Pub_Type 3 37 6 Pub_Year 2021 37 7 Pub_OldID 0 37 8 38967 Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies (RAFE) (2021) Anna Birgitte Milford, Nina Trandem and Armando Garcia Pires Fear of pesticide residues and preference for domestically produced strawberries /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 38967 38 0 Pub_TypeNumber Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies (RAFE) (2021) 38 1 Pub_Writer Anna Birgitte Milford, Nina Trandem and Armando Garcia Pires 38 2 Pub_Title Fear of pesticide residues and preference for domestically produced strawberries 38 3 Pub_Publication /Files 38 4 Pub_AbstractEn 38 5 Pub_Type 3 38 6 Pub_Year 2021 38 7 Pub_OldID 0 38 8 38966 R01/21 Corbett Grainger Fiskesalgslag, omsetningsformer og økonomisk verdiskaping i norske fiskerier /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_21_(1).pdf 2 2021 0 PubID 38966 39 0 Pub_TypeNumber R01/21 39 1 Pub_Writer Corbett Grainger 39 2 Pub_Title Fiskesalgslag, omsetningsformer og økonomisk verdiskaping i norske fiskerier 39 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_21_(1).pdf 39 4 Pub_AbstractEn 39 5 Pub_Type 2 39 6 Pub_Year 2021 39 7 Pub_OldID 0 39 8 38965 A11/20 Oda Haugen Haagensen and Ragnhild Vetrhus Sørlie Consequences of Competition and Proximity on the Stability in Banking. Are there Cyclical Tendencies in Risk Taking, through Distant Lending, in the Corporate Loan Market in Norway? /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_20_(1).pdf In this thesis, we attempt to provide evidence on how competition in the corporate loan market in Norway affects banks’ risk taking, and hence the financial stability, through distant lending over the business cycle. We use comprehensive data from the Norwegian banking market, containing annual information on 169 banks and approximately 136 000 firms over the period 1997 to 2013. Our analysis provides ambiguous results on whether there is cyclical variation in lending distances, and collectively we cannot conclude that there is a clear relationship between business cycles and loan distances. Furthermore, we cannot conclude that increased lending distance is associated with increased risk. Since we do not find such a relationship, we do not consider it beneficial to run our last model investigating the effect of competition on banks’ risk taking, through distant lending. Regardless of whether increased competition leads to increased lending distances, it is not possible to measure whether competition affect banks’ risk taking, as we cannot use distance as an adequate proxy for the risk associated with a loan. Hence, we cannot conclude that competition in the Norwegian banking sector has a negative impact on financial stability through distant lending. 1 2020 0 PubID 38965 40 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/20 40 1 Pub_Writer Oda Haugen Haagensen and Ragnhild Vetrhus Sørlie 40 2 Pub_Title Consequences of Competition and Proximity on the Stability in Banking. Are there Cyclical Tendencies in Risk Taking, through Distant Lending, in the Corporate Loan Market in Norway? 40 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_20_(1).pdf 40 4 Pub_AbstractEn In this thesis, we attempt to provide evidence on how competition in the corporate loan market in Norway affects banks’ risk taking, and hence the financial stability, through distant lending over the business cycle. We use comprehensive data from the Norwegian banking market, containing annual information on 169 banks and approximately 136 000 firms over the period 1997 to 2013. Our analysis provides ambiguous results on whether there is cyclical variation in lending distances, and collectively we cannot conclude that there is a clear relationship between business cycles and loan distances. Furthermore, we cannot conclude that increased lending distance is associated with increased risk. Since we do not find such a relationship, we do not consider it beneficial to run our last model investigating the effect of competition on banks’ risk taking, through distant lending. Regardless of whether increased competition leads to increased lending distances, it is not possible to measure whether competition affect banks’ risk taking, as we cannot use distance as an adequate proxy for the risk associated with a loan. Hence, we cannot conclude that competition in the Norwegian banking sector has a negative impact on financial stability through distant lending. 40 5 Pub_Type 1 40 6 Pub_Year 2020 40 7 Pub_OldID 0 40 8 38962 A05/21 Corbett Grainger Sales Organizations, Industrial Organization and Economic Value in Norway /Files/Filer/Publications/A05_21.pdf In Norway fish sales organizations have the right to set the terms of all transactions between member fishers and prospective buyers. This report studies the impact of sales organizations on the value of the harvest sector. We study how two of the largest sales organizations, Norges Sildesalgslag and Sunnmøre og Romsdal Fiskesalslag (SUROFI), affect the value of the harvest of its member fishers. We find that sales organizations create significant value for member fishers. By organizing auctions, fishing firms are able to receive higher prices for their harvests than if the same fish were sold through contracts. We also find that prices reflect market fundamentals such as the degree of competition on both the buyer and seller sides. This may have consequences for future developments in a market characterized by consolidation on both sides. 1 2021 0 PubID 38962 41 0 Pub_TypeNumber A05/21 41 1 Pub_Writer Corbett Grainger 41 2 Pub_Title Sales Organizations, Industrial Organization and Economic Value in Norway 41 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A05_21.pdf 41 4 Pub_AbstractEn In Norway fish sales organizations have the right to set the terms of all transactions between member fishers and prospective buyers. This report studies the impact of sales organizations on the value of the harvest sector. We study how two of the largest sales organizations, Norges Sildesalgslag and Sunnmøre og Romsdal Fiskesalslag (SUROFI), affect the value of the harvest of its member fishers. We find that sales organizations create significant value for member fishers. By organizing auctions, fishing firms are able to receive higher prices for their harvests than if the same fish were sold through contracts. We also find that prices reflect market fundamentals such as the degree of competition on both the buyer and seller sides. This may have consequences for future developments in a market characterized by consolidation on both sides. 41 5 Pub_Type 1 41 6 Pub_Year 2021 41 7 Pub_OldID 0 41 8 38961 Norsk statsvitenskapelig tidsskrift, 37(1), 50-68 (2021) Simone Brattli, Miriam Molvær og Torstein Nesheim Fleksibel struktur i to statsetater /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 38961 42 0 Pub_TypeNumber Norsk statsvitenskapelig tidsskrift, 37(1), 50-68 (2021) 42 1 Pub_Writer Simone Brattli, Miriam Molvær og Torstein Nesheim 42 2 Pub_Title Fleksibel struktur i to statsetater 42 3 Pub_Publication /Files 42 4 Pub_AbstractEn 42 5 Pub_Type 3 42 6 Pub_Year 2021 42 7 Pub_OldID 0 42 8 37962 A03/21 Charlotte B. Evensen, Øystein Foros, Atle Haugen and Hans Jarle Kind Size-based input price discrimination under endogenous inside options /Files/Filer/Publications/A03_21.pdf Individual retailers may choose to invest in a substitute to a dominant supplier's products (inside option) as a way of improving its position towards the supplier. Given that a large retailer has stronger investment incentives than a smaller rival, the large retailer may obtain a selective rebate (size-based price discrimination). Yet, we often observe that suppliers do not price discriminate between retailers that differ in size. Why is this so? We argue that the explanation may be related to the competitive pressure among the retailers. The more fiercely the retailers compete, the more each retailer cares about its relative input prices. Other things equal, this implies that the retailers will invest more in the substitute the greater the competitive pressure. We show that if the competitive pressure is sufficiently strong, the supplier can profitably incentivize the retailer to reduce its investments in substitutes by committing to charge a uniform input price. Furthermore, we show that under uniform input pricing, the large retailer may induce smaller rivals to exit the market by strategically under-investing in inside options. 1 2021 0 PubID 37962 43 0 Pub_TypeNumber A03/21 43 1 Pub_Writer Charlotte B. Evensen, Øystein Foros, Atle Haugen and Hans Jarle Kind 43 2 Pub_Title Size-based input price discrimination under endogenous inside options 43 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A03_21.pdf 43 4 Pub_AbstractEn Individual retailers may choose to invest in a substitute to a dominant supplier's products (inside option) as a way of improving its position towards the supplier. Given that a large retailer has stronger investment incentives than a smaller rival, the large retailer may obtain a selective rebate (size-based price discrimination). Yet, we often observe that suppliers do not price discriminate between retailers that differ in size. Why is this so? We argue that the explanation may be related to the competitive pressure among the retailers. The more fiercely the retailers compete, the more each retailer cares about its relative input prices. Other things equal, this implies that the retailers will invest more in the substitute the greater the competitive pressure. We show that if the competitive pressure is sufficiently strong, the supplier can profitably incentivize the retailer to reduce its investments in substitutes by committing to charge a uniform input price. Furthermore, we show that under uniform input pricing, the large retailer may induce smaller rivals to exit the market by strategically under-investing in inside options. 43 5 Pub_Type 1 43 6 Pub_Year 2021 43 7 Pub_OldID 0 43 8 37961 A02/21 Øystein Foros, Hans Jarle Kind and Greg Shaffer Less is more in bilateral channel coordination? Linear wholesale pricing may out-perform more complex contracts /Files/Filer/Publications/A02_21.pdf In many markets we observe that suppliers and retailers use simple, linear wholesale tariffs instead of non-linear tariffs. Does this mean that they leave money on the table? Not necessarily. On the contrary, in a bilateral bargaining framework with a dominant supplier and two competing retailers, we find that firms may leave money on the table if they use non-linear tariffs. Fewer instruments could generate more profit (less is more). We show that whether industry profit is higher with linear tariffs or non-linear tariffs depends on the degree of retail competition and the distribution of bargaining power. In some cases, the retailers and the supplier have conflicting preferences with respect to the contract structure (linear or non-linear tariffs). In other cases, however, both the supplier and the retailers are better off with linear tariffs. 1 2021 0 PubID 37961 44 0 Pub_TypeNumber A02/21 44 1 Pub_Writer Øystein Foros, Hans Jarle Kind and Greg Shaffer 44 2 Pub_Title Less is more in bilateral channel coordination? Linear wholesale pricing may out-perform more complex contracts 44 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A02_21.pdf 44 4 Pub_AbstractEn In many markets we observe that suppliers and retailers use simple, linear wholesale tariffs instead of non-linear tariffs. Does this mean that they leave money on the table? Not necessarily. On the contrary, in a bilateral bargaining framework with a dominant supplier and two competing retailers, we find that firms may leave money on the table if they use non-linear tariffs. Fewer instruments could generate more profit (less is more). We show that whether industry profit is higher with linear tariffs or non-linear tariffs depends on the degree of retail competition and the distribution of bargaining power. In some cases, the retailers and the supplier have conflicting preferences with respect to the contract structure (linear or non-linear tariffs). In other cases, however, both the supplier and the retailers are better off with linear tariffs. 44 5 Pub_Type 1 44 6 Pub_Year 2021 44 7 Pub_OldID 0 44 8 36965 A09/20 Øystein Evenstad The role of data: A two-sided model of competition between Google and DuckDuckGo /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_20.pdf This thesis aims to analyze the consumer data’s role as a revenue-shifting input in a two-sided competition-in-utility model between a search engine collecting personalized consumer data (Google) and one that does not (DuckDuckGo). Search engines are examples of platforms characterized by network externalities. They harvest the attention of users and resell this attention to advertisers. As such, standard market mechanisms typical of single-sided markets do not apply. In our model, advertisers are willing to pay a higher premium for targeted search results utilizing consumer data. As such, a search engine like Google can command higher prices per sponsored link if it collects more personalized data from its users. This must be balanced against demand effects stemming from consumer aversion towards the disclosure of personal data. DuckDuckGo, a search engine that explicitly does not collect consumer data, can use investments in consumer aversion strategically to capture market shares from Google. We find that Google has an incentive to collect consumer data and that the presence of DuckDuckGo will moderate the amount. We also find that as consumer aversion to advertisements increases, Google will choose to collect more consumer data as DuckDuckGo’s incentives to respond with investments in privacy awareness are reduced. 1 2020 0 PubID 36965 45 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/20 45 1 Pub_Writer Øystein Evenstad 45 2 Pub_Title The role of data: A two-sided model of competition between Google and DuckDuckGo 45 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_20.pdf 45 4 Pub_AbstractEn This thesis aims to analyze the consumer data’s role as a revenue-shifting input in a two-sided competition-in-utility model between a search engine collecting personalized consumer data (Google) and one that does not (DuckDuckGo). Search engines are examples of platforms characterized by network externalities. They harvest the attention of users and resell this attention to advertisers. As such, standard market mechanisms typical of single-sided markets do not apply. In our model, advertisers are willing to pay a higher premium for targeted search results utilizing consumer data. As such, a search engine like Google can command higher prices per sponsored link if it collects more personalized data from its users. This must be balanced against demand effects stemming from consumer aversion towards the disclosure of personal data. DuckDuckGo, a search engine that explicitly does not collect consumer data, can use investments in consumer aversion strategically to capture market shares from Google. We find that Google has an incentive to collect consumer data and that the presence of DuckDuckGo will moderate the amount. We also find that as consumer aversion to advertisements increases, Google will choose to collect more consumer data as DuckDuckGo’s incentives to respond with investments in privacy awareness are reduced. 45 5 Pub_Type 1 45 6 Pub_Year 2020 45 7 Pub_OldID 0 45 8 36964 A07/20 Martin Richardson and Frank Stähler Some Economics of Echo Chambers /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_20_(1).pdf This paper analyzes competition between a media firm providing true information (news) and two “fake news” providers that create echo chambers. Information from the media firm is uncertain but truthful, and consumers enjoy confirmation of their prior beliefs due to cognitive dissonances. We show that, even if real news is more valued than fake news, entry by fake news providers becomes more profitable with the variance of information. Furthermore, a public news provider makes entry for fake news providers harder compared to a profit-maximizing media firm. 1 2020 0 PubID 36964 46 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/20 46 1 Pub_Writer Martin Richardson and Frank Stähler 46 2 Pub_Title Some Economics of Echo Chambers 46 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_20_(1).pdf 46 4 Pub_AbstractEn This paper analyzes competition between a media firm providing true information (news) and two “fake news” providers that create echo chambers. Information from the media firm is uncertain but truthful, and consumers enjoy confirmation of their prior beliefs due to cognitive dissonances. We show that, even if real news is more valued than fake news, entry by fake news providers becomes more profitable with the variance of information. Furthermore, a public news provider makes entry for fake news providers harder compared to a profit-maximizing media firm. 46 5 Pub_Type 1 46 6 Pub_Year 2020 46 7 Pub_OldID 0 46 8 36963 A06/20 Malin Arve, Øystein Foros and Hans Jarle Kind Access-price structure and entrants’ build-or-buy incentives in mobile markets /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_20_(1).pdf We consider a market structure with three mobile providers, two of which are vertically integrated and have nationwide coverage. The third provider (an entrant) invests in partial coverage, and needs to rent access from one of its rivals in order to provide nationwide coverage. The paper is motivated by the Norwegian mobile market, where the competition authorities imposed a fine of EUR 78 million on Telenor (the dominant incumbent) for abusing market power by changing the access price structure in such a way that it hampered the entrant’s investment incentives. Specifically, Telenor reduced the rental rate for the actual use of Telenor’s network. At the same time, they introduced a SIM card fee payable by the entrant for each of its consumers. We show that the relationship between the change in the access price structure and the entrant’s investment level is ambiguous. Competition among the vertically-integrated providers in the access market may drive them to offer a structure that benefits the entrant. Thus, the observed change in access price structure may be the outcome of intensified upstream competition rather than abuse of market power. 1 2020 0 PubID 36963 47 0 Pub_TypeNumber A06/20 47 1 Pub_Writer Malin Arve, Øystein Foros and Hans Jarle Kind 47 2 Pub_Title Access-price structure and entrants’ build-or-buy incentives in mobile markets 47 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_20_(1).pdf 47 4 Pub_AbstractEn We consider a market structure with three mobile providers, two of which are vertically integrated and have nationwide coverage. The third provider (an entrant) invests in partial coverage, and needs to rent access from one of its rivals in order to provide nationwide coverage. The paper is motivated by the Norwegian mobile market, where the competition authorities imposed a fine of EUR 78 million on Telenor (the dominant incumbent) for abusing market power by changing the access price structure in such a way that it hampered the entrant’s investment incentives. Specifically, Telenor reduced the rental rate for the actual use of Telenor’s network. At the same time, they introduced a SIM card fee payable by the entrant for each of its consumers. We show that the relationship between the change in the access price structure and the entrant’s investment level is ambiguous. Competition among the vertically-integrated providers in the access market may drive them to offer a structure that benefits the entrant. Thus, the observed change in access price structure may be the outcome of intensified upstream competition rather than abuse of market power. 47 5 Pub_Type 1 47 6 Pub_Year 2020 47 7 Pub_OldID 0 47 8 36961 Environmental and Resource Economics, 1-23 (2021) Sturla F. Kvamsdal, Ivan Belik, Arnt Ove Hopland and Yuanhao Li A Machine Learning Analysis of the Recent Environmental and Resource Economics Literature /Files 3 2021 0 PubID 36961 48 0 Pub_TypeNumber Environmental and Resource Economics, 1-23 (2021) 48 1 Pub_Writer Sturla F. Kvamsdal, Ivan Belik, Arnt Ove Hopland and Yuanhao Li 48 2 Pub_Title A Machine Learning Analysis of the Recent Environmental and Resource Economics Literature 48 3 Pub_Publication /Files 48 4 Pub_AbstractEn 48 5 Pub_Type 3 48 6 Pub_Year 2021 48 7 Pub_OldID 0 48 8 36960 Review of Network Economics, 19(1), 43-83 (2020) Armando J. Garcia Pires Content Provision in the Media Market with Single-Homing and Multi-Homing Consumers /Files 3 2020 0 PubID 36960 49 0 Pub_TypeNumber Review of Network Economics, 19(1), 43-83 (2020) 49 1 Pub_Writer Armando J. Garcia Pires 49 2 Pub_Title Content Provision in the Media Market with Single-Homing and Multi-Homing Consumers 49 3 Pub_Publication /Files 49 4 Pub_AbstractEn 49 5 Pub_Type 3 49 6 Pub_Year 2020 49 7 Pub_OldID 0 49 8