Siste publikasjoner

21730 A02/17 Kjetil Bjorvatn, Mathias Ekström og Armando J. G. Pires Små dytt for store valg: Rapport fra et forskningsprosjekt om nudging for økt rekruttering til lærerutdanningen /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF A02_17.pdf 1 2017 0 PubID 21730 0 0 Pub_TypeNumber A02/17 0 1 Pub_Writer Kjetil Bjorvatn, Mathias Ekström og Armando J. G. Pires 0 2 Pub_Title Små dytt for store valg: Rapport fra et forskningsprosjekt om nudging for økt rekruttering til lærerutdanningen 0 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF A02_17.pdf 0 4 Pub_AbstractEn 0 5 Pub_Type 1 0 6 Pub_Year 2017 0 7 Pub_OldID 0 0 8 21729 Applied Economics, DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2017.1287856 Bjørndal, T. and Guillen, J. Market integration between wild and farmed sebream and seabass in Spain /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21729 1 0 Pub_TypeNumber Applied Economics, DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2017.1287856 1 1 Pub_Writer Bjørndal, T. and Guillen, J. 1 2 Pub_Title Market integration between wild and farmed sebream and seabass in Spain 1 3 Pub_Publication /Files 1 4 Pub_AbstractEn 1 5 Pub_Type 3 1 6 Pub_Year 2017 1 7 Pub_OldID 0 1 8 21728 Ecological Economics, 131 (2017), 250-261 Ekerhovd, N.-A. and Kvamsdal, S.F. Up the ante on bioeconomic submodels of marine food webs: A data assimilation-based approach /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21728 2 0 Pub_TypeNumber Ecological Economics, 131 (2017), 250-261 2 1 Pub_Writer Ekerhovd, N.-A. and Kvamsdal, S.F. 2 2 Pub_Title Up the ante on bioeconomic submodels of marine food webs: A data assimilation-based approach 2 3 Pub_Publication /Files 2 4 Pub_AbstractEn 2 5 Pub_Type 3 2 6 Pub_Year 2017 2 7 Pub_OldID 0 2 8 21727 Transportation Research Part A, 95 (2017), 1-12 Adland, R.O., Alger, H., Banyte, J. and Jia, H. Does fuel efficiency pay? Empirical evidence from the drybulk timecharter market revisited /Files 3 2000 0 PubID 21727 3 0 Pub_TypeNumber Transportation Research Part A, 95 (2017), 1-12 3 1 Pub_Writer Adland, R.O., Alger, H., Banyte, J. and Jia, H. 3 2 Pub_Title Does fuel efficiency pay? Empirical evidence from the drybulk timecharter market revisited 3 3 Pub_Publication /Files 3 4 Pub_AbstractEn 3 5 Pub_Type 3 3 6 Pub_Year 2000 3 7 Pub_OldID 0 3 8 21725 R01/16 Ivar Gaasland og Tommy Staahl Gabrielsen Bruk av markeder og konkurranse i omsetning av matvarer – utfordringer og muligheter /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_16_(1).pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21725 4 0 Pub_TypeNumber R01/16 4 1 Pub_Writer Ivar Gaasland og Tommy Staahl Gabrielsen 4 2 Pub_Title Bruk av markeder og konkurranse i omsetning av matvarer – utfordringer og muligheter 4 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_16_(1).pdf 4 4 Pub_AbstractEn 4 5 Pub_Type 2 4 6 Pub_Year 2016 4 7 Pub_OldID 0 4 8 21724 Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253 Nesheim, T., Olsen, K.M. and Sandvik, A.M. Never walk alone: achieving work performance through networking ability and autonomy /Files <p>Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253</p> 3 2017 0 PubID 21724 5 0 Pub_TypeNumber Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253 5 1 Pub_Writer Nesheim, T., Olsen, K.M. and Sandvik, A.M. 5 2 Pub_Title Never walk alone: achieving work performance through networking ability and autonomy 5 3 Pub_Publication /Files 5 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Employee Relations, Vol. 39 (2017), No. 2, 240-253</p> 5 5 Pub_Type 3 5 6 Pub_Year 2017 5 7 Pub_OldID 0 5 8 21723 R06/16 Lars Kleveland og Anniken Tiset Budsjettet i utvikling. En kvantitativ studie av norske virksomheters bruk og holdning til budsjettet /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_16_(1).pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21723 6 0 Pub_TypeNumber R06/16 6 1 Pub_Writer Lars Kleveland og Anniken Tiset 6 2 Pub_Title Budsjettet i utvikling. En kvantitativ studie av norske virksomheters bruk og holdning til budsjettet 6 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_16_(1).pdf 6 4 Pub_AbstractEn 6 5 Pub_Type 2 6 6 Pub_Year 2016 6 7 Pub_OldID 0 6 8 21722 R10/16 Martin O. Gooderham and Oskar Jensen Skulberg Contradictory Formalisations in a Management Control System /Files/Filer/Publications/R_1016.pdf <p>The formalisations that exist in an organisation are thought to have a substantial influence on how employees interpret the organisation&rsquo;s Management Control System (MCS) (Malmi &amp; Brown, 2008). Previously, researchers claimed that an increase in formalisation would have a negative attitudinal effect on employees, while a decrease induces an autonomous and positive view of the MCS (Burns &amp; Stalker, 1969). Adler &amp; Borys (1996) broke with this notion and argued that it is not the degree of formalisation that determines employee interpretation, but rather the distinctive features of the way rules and procedures are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study is to explore how the introduction of two contradictory formalisations influences the users&rsquo; interpretation of the MCS in an organisation.<br />This thesis conducts a case study of Statoil who have recently introduced two contradictory degrees of formalisations to their MCS. One is a decrease where the aim has been to give employees more freedom to decide what rules and regulations should be defining for them. The other represents an increase through the introduction of a detailed procedure for risk management. By applying a qualitative research methodology, we study how employees have interpreted corporate&rsquo;s intentions behind the two formalisations. Further, we compare how this has influenced their experience of the MCS in the different cases. <br />Overall, our conclusions support the argument made by Adler &amp; Borys (1996) through revealing that how the increased and decreased formalisations in Statoil have been interpreted has been a consequence of their inherent features. We find that corporate have designed and implemented enabling formalisations that have had a positive attitudinal influence on the users. Further, our study suggests that generating an understanding of the underlying rationales behind the formalisations is of particular importance in this process. Finally, we also find that the contradictory degrees of formalisation have induced different interpretations of support roles in the MCS. Where they are regarded as an interference to decision-making latitude in the case of decreased formalisations, support roles are viewed as a positive feature in the case of the opposite.</p> 2 2016 0 PubID 21722 7 0 Pub_TypeNumber R10/16 7 1 Pub_Writer Martin O. Gooderham and Oskar Jensen Skulberg 7 2 Pub_Title Contradictory Formalisations in a Management Control System 7 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_1016.pdf 7 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The formalisations that exist in an organisation are thought to have a substantial influence on how employees interpret the organisation&rsquo;s Management Control System (MCS) (Malmi &amp; Brown, 2008). Previously, researchers claimed that an increase in formalisation would have a negative attitudinal effect on employees, while a decrease induces an autonomous and positive view of the MCS (Burns &amp; Stalker, 1969). Adler &amp; Borys (1996) broke with this notion and argued that it is not the degree of formalisation that determines employee interpretation, but rather the distinctive features of the way rules and procedures are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study is to explore how the introduction of two contradictory formalisations influences the users&rsquo; interpretation of the MCS in an organisation.<br />This thesis conducts a case study of Statoil who have recently introduced two contradictory degrees of formalisations to their MCS. One is a decrease where the aim has been to give employees more freedom to decide what rules and regulations should be defining for them. The other represents an increase through the introduction of a detailed procedure for risk management. By applying a qualitative research methodology, we study how employees have interpreted corporate&rsquo;s intentions behind the two formalisations. Further, we compare how this has influenced their experience of the MCS in the different cases. <br />Overall, our conclusions support the argument made by Adler &amp; Borys (1996) through revealing that how the increased and decreased formalisations in Statoil have been interpreted has been a consequence of their inherent features. We find that corporate have designed and implemented enabling formalisations that have had a positive attitudinal influence on the users. Further, our study suggests that generating an understanding of the underlying rationales behind the formalisations is of particular importance in this process. Finally, we also find that the contradictory degrees of formalisation have induced different interpretations of support roles in the MCS. Where they are regarded as an interference to decision-making latitude in the case of decreased formalisations, support roles are viewed as a positive feature in the case of the opposite.</p> 7 5 Pub_Type 2 7 6 Pub_Year 2016 7 7 Pub_OldID 0 7 8 21721 R09/16 Håvard Baunan and Joel Berge Understanding Risk Appetite. What is it, what pressures shape it and how is it institutionalized /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0916.pdf <p>The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of risk appetite in terms of what it is, what institutional pressures influence it, and how it is institutionalized in an organization. We try to understand what risk appetite is by examining the most influential enterprise risk management frameworks, reports from practitioners, and scholarly research on the topic. Through a case study of a large and complex Norwegian organization, we seek to explain what influences and institutionalizes risk appetite. First, we find that there is a consensus in the literature that risk appetite is a top-down element of enterprise risk management, but that there is disagreement as to how quantitatively it is understood and practiced. Second, we find that one cannot decouple risk appetite from its organizational context, as both external and internal institutional pressures influence risk appetite in the organization. Third, we find that risk appetite is not a singular concept in the organization. Risk appetites varies across risk categories, and the institutionalization of risk appetite relies on cultural elements in the organization. Our thesis adds to the understanding of the risk appetite concept, and adds to the scholarly argument that the evolution of risk appetite should go in the direction of addressing human and social behavior. Further, we contribute with a model to analyze institutionalization of risk appetite in organizations.</p> 2 2016 0 PubID 21721 8 0 Pub_TypeNumber R09/16 8 1 Pub_Writer Håvard Baunan and Joel Berge 8 2 Pub_Title Understanding Risk Appetite. What is it, what pressures shape it and how is it institutionalized 8 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0916.pdf 8 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of risk appetite in terms of what it is, what institutional pressures influence it, and how it is institutionalized in an organization. We try to understand what risk appetite is by examining the most influential enterprise risk management frameworks, reports from practitioners, and scholarly research on the topic. Through a case study of a large and complex Norwegian organization, we seek to explain what influences and institutionalizes risk appetite. First, we find that there is a consensus in the literature that risk appetite is a top-down element of enterprise risk management, but that there is disagreement as to how quantitatively it is understood and practiced. Second, we find that one cannot decouple risk appetite from its organizational context, as both external and internal institutional pressures influence risk appetite in the organization. Third, we find that risk appetite is not a singular concept in the organization. Risk appetites varies across risk categories, and the institutionalization of risk appetite relies on cultural elements in the organization. Our thesis adds to the understanding of the risk appetite concept, and adds to the scholarly argument that the evolution of risk appetite should go in the direction of addressing human and social behavior. Further, we contribute with a model to analyze institutionalization of risk appetite in organizations.</p> 8 5 Pub_Type 2 8 6 Pub_Year 2016 8 7 Pub_OldID 0 8 8 21720 R08/16 Karoline Dybendal Aulie og Vegard Sundnes Tjenende ledelse i små, norske bedrifter. En studie av norske regnskapsbedrifter /Files/Filer/Publications/R08_16.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21720 9 0 Pub_TypeNumber R08/16 9 1 Pub_Writer Karoline Dybendal Aulie og Vegard Sundnes 9 2 Pub_Title Tjenende ledelse i små, norske bedrifter. En studie av norske regnskapsbedrifter 9 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R08_16.pdf 9 4 Pub_AbstractEn 9 5 Pub_Type 2 9 6 Pub_Year 2016 9 7 Pub_OldID 0 9 8 21719 R07/16 Marie Aune og Julie Bie Tillit i virtuelle prosjektteam /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0716.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 21719 10 0 Pub_TypeNumber R07/16 10 1 Pub_Writer Marie Aune og Julie Bie 10 2 Pub_Title Tillit i virtuelle prosjektteam 10 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R_0716.pdf 10 4 Pub_AbstractEn 10 5 Pub_Type 2 10 6 Pub_Year 2016 10 7 Pub_OldID 0 10 8 21717 Journal of Public Economics, 147 (2017), 1-15 Brekke, K., Garcia Pires, A., Schindler, D. and Schjelderup, G. Capital Taxation and Imperfect Competition: ACE vs. CBIT /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21717 11 0 Pub_TypeNumber Journal of Public Economics, 147 (2017), 1-15 11 1 Pub_Writer Brekke, K., Garcia Pires, A., Schindler, D. and Schjelderup, G. 11 2 Pub_Title Capital Taxation and Imperfect Competition: ACE vs. CBIT 11 3 Pub_Publication /Files 11 4 Pub_AbstractEn 11 5 Pub_Type 3 11 6 Pub_Year 2017 11 7 Pub_OldID 0 11 8 21716 A11/16 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_16_(1).pdf <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2014, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 10/16 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 21716 12 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/16 12 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving 12 2 Pub_Title NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies 12 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_16_(1).pdf 12 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2014, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 10/16 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 12 5 Pub_Type 1 12 6 Pub_Year 2016 12 7 Pub_OldID 0 12 8 21714 A10/16 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_16.pdf 1 2016 0 PubID 21714 13 0 Pub_TypeNumber A10/16 13 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving 13 2 Pub_Title Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper 13 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_16.pdf 13 4 Pub_AbstractEn 13 5 Pub_Type 1 13 6 Pub_Year 2016 13 7 Pub_OldID 0 13 8 21713 A09/16 Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal Concerns among local government facility managers /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">Purpose: To investigate which concerns are most important for local government facility managers in Norway.<br />Design: We analyze a survey dataset covering about 2/3 of all Norwegian local governments, using descriptive statistics techniques.<br />Findings: The facility managers are most worried about weak fiscal conditions and lack of political priority of facility management. Almost all facility managers report concerns about these issues, and the responses do not vary much across local governments with different characteristics. There is also widespread concern, albeit less serious, about organizational structure and recuitment problems. Local governments with a decentralized facility management are more concerned about the organizational structure than those with a centralized structure, and low-population local governments are more concerned about recruitment problems than those with a high population. Finally, local governments that report that their public buildings are in good condition generally have fewer and less serious concerns, in line with what one could expect.<br />Originality/value: The paper offers insights into which concerns that are most important among local government facility managers.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 21713 14 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/16 14 1 Pub_Writer Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal 14 2 Pub_Title Concerns among local government facility managers 14 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_16.pdf 14 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">Purpose: To investigate which concerns are most important for local government facility managers in Norway.<br />Design: We analyze a survey dataset covering about 2/3 of all Norwegian local governments, using descriptive statistics techniques.<br />Findings: The facility managers are most worried about weak fiscal conditions and lack of political priority of facility management. Almost all facility managers report concerns about these issues, and the responses do not vary much across local governments with different characteristics. There is also widespread concern, albeit less serious, about organizational structure and recuitment problems. Local governments with a decentralized facility management are more concerned about the organizational structure than those with a centralized structure, and low-population local governments are more concerned about recruitment problems than those with a high population. Finally, local governments that report that their public buildings are in good condition generally have fewer and less serious concerns, in line with what one could expect.<br />Originality/value: The paper offers insights into which concerns that are most important among local government facility managers.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> 14 5 Pub_Type 1 14 6 Pub_Year 2016 14 7 Pub_OldID 0 14 8 20714 A08/16 Stein Ivar Steinshamn Predators in the market: Implications of market interaction on optimal resource management /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 08_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">A two-species bioeconomic model is analyzed, but in contrast to most similar models, there is no biological interaction between the species, only economic. The interaction takes place in the market where the quantity of either species may affect the price of the other. The effects of cross-price elasticities on the optimal steady state and on the optimal paths in the sole-owner case are investigated both analytically and numerically. First, it is shown that whether cross-price elasticities have impact on the steady state or not, depends heavily on the technology in the fishery (e.g. purse seine versus trawl). Further, in the case of linear demand functions, the steady state outcome depends solely on the sum of the cross-price parameters and not their individual values. This is shown analytically. Secondly, in the investigation of optimal paths, numeric methods must be resorted to. It is shown that cross-price elasticities have interesting effects on the paths. More precisely, when cross-price elasticities are present and are sufficiently high, the paths go from being monotonic to feature over- or undershooting.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20714 15 0 Pub_TypeNumber A08/16 15 1 Pub_Writer Stein Ivar Steinshamn 15 2 Pub_Title Predators in the market: Implications of market interaction on optimal resource management 15 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 08_16.pdf 15 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">A two-species bioeconomic model is analyzed, but in contrast to most similar models, there is no biological interaction between the species, only economic. The interaction takes place in the market where the quantity of either species may affect the price of the other. The effects of cross-price elasticities on the optimal steady state and on the optimal paths in the sole-owner case are investigated both analytically and numerically. First, it is shown that whether cross-price elasticities have impact on the steady state or not, depends heavily on the technology in the fishery (e.g. purse seine versus trawl). Further, in the case of linear demand functions, the steady state outcome depends solely on the sum of the cross-price parameters and not their individual values. This is shown analytically. Secondly, in the investigation of optimal paths, numeric methods must be resorted to. It is shown that cross-price elasticities have interesting effects on the paths. More precisely, when cross-price elasticities are present and are sufficiently high, the paths go from being monotonic to feature over- or undershooting.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> 15 5 Pub_Type 1 15 6 Pub_Year 2016 15 7 Pub_OldID 0 15 8 20713 A07/16 Eleonore Lazat and Trond Bjørndal The Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: Fast Crash and Swift Recovery for the Ferrari of the Ocean? /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 07_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna tastes delicious. Naturally, the Japanese sashimi market fights over this high value fish. Unfortunately, this moneymaking resource has been overfished since the 1970s due to its&rsquo; wide geographical spread and high sea open access characteristic, which means over 25 countries sought to capture it. This cumulated in near extinction of the species in the mid-2000s. The organisation in charge of managing the stock, the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), established a fifteen-year species recovery plan starting in 2006-2007. The plan includes fishing seasons, gear restrictions, quantity control and strict monitoring of vessels. Ten years into the programme, this project sets out to assess the state of the stock. Quantitative indicators will enable assessing the health of the stock, and qualitative methods will evaluate the managerial success of the recovery programme, in terms of member compliance and caution adopted with regard to the stock. Results of the research show the stock is en-route to recovery. Population indicators are recovering faster than expected. Recommendations, such as educational courses on stock sustainability for fishermen or knowledge-access incentives to comply, will hopefully reach the ICCAT to adapt the programme for the remaining five years.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20713 16 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/16 16 1 Pub_Writer Eleonore Lazat and Trond Bjørndal 16 2 Pub_Title The Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: Fast Crash and Swift Recovery for the Ferrari of the Ocean? 16 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 07_16.pdf 16 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna tastes delicious. Naturally, the Japanese sashimi market fights over this high value fish. Unfortunately, this moneymaking resource has been overfished since the 1970s due to its&rsquo; wide geographical spread and high sea open access characteristic, which means over 25 countries sought to capture it. This cumulated in near extinction of the species in the mid-2000s. The organisation in charge of managing the stock, the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), established a fifteen-year species recovery plan starting in 2006-2007. The plan includes fishing seasons, gear restrictions, quantity control and strict monitoring of vessels. Ten years into the programme, this project sets out to assess the state of the stock. Quantitative indicators will enable assessing the health of the stock, and qualitative methods will evaluate the managerial success of the recovery programme, in terms of member compliance and caution adopted with regard to the stock. Results of the research show the stock is en-route to recovery. Population indicators are recovering faster than expected. Recommendations, such as educational courses on stock sustainability for fishermen or knowledge-access incentives to comply, will hopefully reach the ICCAT to adapt the programme for the remaining five years.</p> 16 5 Pub_Type 1 16 6 Pub_Year 2016 16 7 Pub_OldID 0 16 8 20712 R05/16 Frode Skjeret, Kåre Petter Hagen og Linda Nøstbakken Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av Veterinærinstituttets innsats innen fiskehelse /Files/Filer/Publications/R05_16.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20712 17 0 Pub_TypeNumber R05/16 17 1 Pub_Writer Frode Skjeret, Kåre Petter Hagen og Linda Nøstbakken 17 2 Pub_Title Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av Veterinærinstituttets innsats innen fiskehelse 17 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R05_16.pdf 17 4 Pub_AbstractEn 17 5 Pub_Type 2 17 6 Pub_Year 2015 17 7 Pub_OldID 0 17 8 20711 R04/16 Mathias Grønhaug Reierth og Juliet Tronstad Effektive team. Kognitiv motivasjon og maksimerings betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer /Files/Filer/Publications/R04_16.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 20711 18 0 Pub_TypeNumber R04/16 18 1 Pub_Writer Mathias Grønhaug Reierth og Juliet Tronstad 18 2 Pub_Title Effektive team. Kognitiv motivasjon og maksimerings betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer 18 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R04_16.pdf 18 4 Pub_AbstractEn 18 5 Pub_Type 2 18 6 Pub_Year 2016 18 7 Pub_OldID 0 18 8 20710 R20/15 Mats Vormeland Langgård og Fredrik Døhl Mostad Entreprenørens dilemmaer - Gode idéer uten finansiering /Files/Filer/Publications/R20_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20710 19 0 Pub_TypeNumber R20/15 19 1 Pub_Writer Mats Vormeland Langgård og Fredrik Døhl Mostad 19 2 Pub_Title Entreprenørens dilemmaer - Gode idéer uten finansiering 19 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R20_15.pdf 19 4 Pub_AbstractEn 19 5 Pub_Type 2 19 6 Pub_Year 2015 19 7 Pub_OldID 0 19 8 20709 R19/15 Malene Austrheim and Sonja Lee Solheim What makes employees trust forecasted numbers? /Files/Filer/Publications/R19_15.pdf <p>Volatile and changing market conditions have made financial planning tools of increasing importance for managers and practitioners. In recent years, the use of traditional budgets has been criticised as a management control tool.&nbsp; New management tools such as rolling forecasts have arisen. The purpose of this study is to explore how the rolling forecasting process affects trust in an organization. According to Bergstrand (2009) it is important for managers to trust each other in order to get the rolling forecast process to work efficiently. This is in line with Starovic &amp; Jackson (2004) who argue that trust needs to be present in an organization for the systems to work effectively.</p> <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts within an organization &ndash; namely DNV GL. Through qualitative research method, the study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how the rolling forecasting process is understood and how that influences trust. Specifically we investigate:&nbsp; a) How employees make sense of the new financial planning process after introducing rolling forecasts, b) how employees experience that the rolling forecasting process facilitates trust between levels, c) if employees perceive any factors as challenging trust in the forecasting process.</p> <p>Our main findings show that rolling forecasting process influence trust in an organization. Trust is both facilitated and challenged as a consequence of the use of this management tool. By looking at trust through the concepts of ability, benevolence and integrity we are able to identify more specifically what aspects of trust that are influenced. Rolling forecasting process is understood as facilitating ability at all levels in the organization. On the other hand, trust in relation to integrity is only found facilitated at the higher levels in the organization. We explain these findings by looking at the lower level&acute;s understanding of the rolling forecasting process, which differs from the other levels. Rolling forecasting process challenges trust in terms of integrity and benevolence. Integrity is found challenged only at the higher levels. Benevolence is challenged at the lower levels as a result of gaming related behaviour. The thesis finds that the facilitation or challenge of trust is important as it influences how the employees use the forecasted numbers.</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 20709 20 0 Pub_TypeNumber R19/15 20 1 Pub_Writer Malene Austrheim and Sonja Lee Solheim 20 2 Pub_Title What makes employees trust forecasted numbers? 20 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R19_15.pdf 20 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Volatile and changing market conditions have made financial planning tools of increasing importance for managers and practitioners. In recent years, the use of traditional budgets has been criticised as a management control tool.&nbsp; New management tools such as rolling forecasts have arisen. The purpose of this study is to explore how the rolling forecasting process affects trust in an organization. According to Bergstrand (2009) it is important for managers to trust each other in order to get the rolling forecast process to work efficiently. This is in line with Starovic &amp; Jackson (2004) who argue that trust needs to be present in an organization for the systems to work effectively.</p> <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts within an organization &ndash; namely DNV GL. Through qualitative research method, the study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how the rolling forecasting process is understood and how that influences trust. Specifically we investigate:&nbsp; a) How employees make sense of the new financial planning process after introducing rolling forecasts, b) how employees experience that the rolling forecasting process facilitates trust between levels, c) if employees perceive any factors as challenging trust in the forecasting process.</p> <p>Our main findings show that rolling forecasting process influence trust in an organization. Trust is both facilitated and challenged as a consequence of the use of this management tool. By looking at trust through the concepts of ability, benevolence and integrity we are able to identify more specifically what aspects of trust that are influenced. Rolling forecasting process is understood as facilitating ability at all levels in the organization. On the other hand, trust in relation to integrity is only found facilitated at the higher levels in the organization. We explain these findings by looking at the lower level&acute;s understanding of the rolling forecasting process, which differs from the other levels. Rolling forecasting process challenges trust in terms of integrity and benevolence. Integrity is found challenged only at the higher levels. Benevolence is challenged at the lower levels as a result of gaming related behaviour. The thesis finds that the facilitation or challenge of trust is important as it influences how the employees use the forecasted numbers.</p> 20 5 Pub_Type 2 20 6 Pub_Year 2015 20 7 Pub_OldID 0 20 8 20707 A05/16 Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon PCAIDS and Growth Index Demand Modelling for Imported Cod Products in Portugal. ‘Special Issue – Fisheries and Aquaculture’ /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 05_16.pdf <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify and measure own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted and salted &amp; dried cod products. The calculated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index model to measure shifts in demand impacting price of product. Controlling for supply shocks the growth index shows over the period a positive growth in demand for frozen product but a negative change in demand growth for salted, and to a lesser degree, for salted &amp; dried products. The results are used in simulating alternative price demand scenarios.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20707 21 0 Pub_TypeNumber A05/16 21 1 Pub_Writer Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon 21 2 Pub_Title PCAIDS and Growth Index Demand Modelling for Imported Cod Products in Portugal. ‘Special Issue – Fisheries and Aquaculture’ 21 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 05_16.pdf 21 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify and measure own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted and salted &amp; dried cod products. The calculated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index model to measure shifts in demand impacting price of product. Controlling for supply shocks the growth index shows over the period a positive growth in demand for frozen product but a negative change in demand growth for salted, and to a lesser degree, for salted &amp; dried products. The results are used in simulating alternative price demand scenarios.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 21 5 Pub_Type 1 21 6 Pub_Year 2016 21 7 Pub_OldID 0 21 8 20706 R17/15 Kathrine Slåtto Olsen og Vibeke Solum Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast /Files/Filer/Publications/R17_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20706 22 0 Pub_TypeNumber R17/15 22 1 Pub_Writer Kathrine Slåtto Olsen og Vibeke Solum 22 2 Pub_Title Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast 22 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R17_15.pdf 22 4 Pub_AbstractEn 22 5 Pub_Type 2 22 6 Pub_Year 2015 22 7 Pub_OldID 0 22 8 20705 R16/15 Anna Paula Fijalkowska og Karina Sofie Hjartåker Tilpasning av bemanning og valg av nedbemanningstiltak i bedrifter rammet av oljekrisen /Files/Filer/Publications/R16_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20705 23 0 Pub_TypeNumber R16/15 23 1 Pub_Writer Anna Paula Fijalkowska og Karina Sofie Hjartåker 23 2 Pub_Title Tilpasning av bemanning og valg av nedbemanningstiltak i bedrifter rammet av oljekrisen 23 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R16_15.pdf 23 4 Pub_AbstractEn 23 5 Pub_Type 2 23 6 Pub_Year 2015 23 7 Pub_OldID 0 23 8 20704 R15/15 Ruben Østrem og Øystein A. Tjølsen Teamkontraktens betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer. Direkte og medierende effekter mellom teamkontrakt, arbeidsprosesser og prestasjoner /Files/Filer/Publications/R15_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20704 24 0 Pub_TypeNumber R15/15 24 1 Pub_Writer Ruben Østrem og Øystein A. Tjølsen 24 2 Pub_Title Teamkontraktens betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer. Direkte og medierende effekter mellom teamkontrakt, arbeidsprosesser og prestasjoner 24 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R15_15.pdf 24 4 Pub_AbstractEn 24 5 Pub_Type 2 24 6 Pub_Year 2015 24 7 Pub_OldID 0 24 8 20703 R11/15 Henny Marie Fløystad og Inger Samuelsen Nordli Effekter av lederatferd. En studie av mellomstore regnskapsbedrifter i Norge /Files/Filer/Publications/R11_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20703 25 0 Pub_TypeNumber R11/15 25 1 Pub_Writer Henny Marie Fløystad og Inger Samuelsen Nordli 25 2 Pub_Title Effekter av lederatferd. En studie av mellomstore regnskapsbedrifter i Norge 25 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R11_15.pdf 25 4 Pub_AbstractEn 25 5 Pub_Type 2 25 6 Pub_Year 2015 25 7 Pub_OldID 0 25 8 20702 R10/15 Berit Fidjeland og Didrik Rosseid Breivik Effektivitet i lederteam. Hvordan kan et lederteams etableringsaktiviteter påvirke teamets videre prosesser og effektivitet? /Files/Filer/Publications/R10_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20702 26 0 Pub_TypeNumber R10/15 26 1 Pub_Writer Berit Fidjeland og Didrik Rosseid Breivik 26 2 Pub_Title Effektivitet i lederteam. Hvordan kan et lederteams etableringsaktiviteter påvirke teamets videre prosesser og effektivitet? 26 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R10_15.pdf 26 4 Pub_AbstractEn 26 5 Pub_Type 2 26 6 Pub_Year 2015 26 7 Pub_OldID 0 26 8 20701 R09/15 Martine Borgen Borgaard og Heidi Giske Psykologiske kontrakter i Professional Service Firms - En casestudie av et IT-konsulentselskap /Files/Filer/Publications/R09_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20701 27 0 Pub_TypeNumber R09/15 27 1 Pub_Writer Martine Borgen Borgaard og Heidi Giske 27 2 Pub_Title Psykologiske kontrakter i Professional Service Firms - En casestudie av et IT-konsulentselskap 27 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R09_15.pdf 27 4 Pub_AbstractEn 27 5 Pub_Type 2 27 6 Pub_Year 2015 27 7 Pub_OldID 0 27 8 20700 A01/16 Kanira Shah and Trond Bjørndal The Café Femenino Peru Story: Evaluating the potential of a for-profit gender equitable value chain /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 01_16.pdf <p>The focus of this paper is on evaluating how Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru, an organically grown coffee produced by women, is successful in promoting gender equity, while being a for-profit business. Using the &lsquo;pro-poor perspective&rsquo; of Porter&rsquo;s value chain analysis as its primary methodology, this research identifies links and dynamics in the value chain of Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru but with a gender lens perspective.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results reveal that the combined increases in income and the increased access to assistance, through training and the Caf&eacute; Femenino Foundation in particular, has produced a big positive change.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20700 28 0 Pub_TypeNumber A01/16 28 1 Pub_Writer Kanira Shah and Trond Bjørndal 28 2 Pub_Title The Café Femenino Peru Story: Evaluating the potential of a for-profit gender equitable value chain 28 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 01_16.pdf 28 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The focus of this paper is on evaluating how Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru, an organically grown coffee produced by women, is successful in promoting gender equity, while being a for-profit business. Using the &lsquo;pro-poor perspective&rsquo; of Porter&rsquo;s value chain analysis as its primary methodology, this research identifies links and dynamics in the value chain of Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru but with a gender lens perspective.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results reveal that the combined increases in income and the increased access to assistance, through training and the Caf&eacute; Femenino Foundation in particular, has produced a big positive change.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 28 5 Pub_Type 1 28 6 Pub_Year 2016 28 7 Pub_OldID 0 28 8 20699 A04/16 Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik Fish Processing in Portugal: An Industry in Expansion /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 04_16.pdf <p>This paper analyses developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present as well prospects for future expansion. Fish processing has expanded in recent decades gaining market share in the domestic market for processed products at the expense of imports. Furthermore, Portugal has now become an important exporter to several countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20699 29 0 Pub_TypeNumber A04/16 29 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik 29 2 Pub_Title Fish Processing in Portugal: An Industry in Expansion 29 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 04_16.pdf 29 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This paper analyses developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present as well prospects for future expansion. Fish processing has expanded in recent decades gaining market share in the domestic market for processed products at the expense of imports. Furthermore, Portugal has now become an important exporter to several countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 29 5 Pub_Type 1 29 6 Pub_Year 2016 29 7 Pub_OldID 0 29 8 20698 A03/16 Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland Framing agenda for business model innovation research from the B2B context /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 03_16.pdf <p>This paper reviews the literature on business models in the business-to-business (B2B) context and proposes a research agenda that can be explored by future studies using various management and organizational theories. We outline four research themes and seven research topics for research on business model innovations in the B2B context. Further studies on these topics can make significant contributions to the business model literature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20698 30 0 Pub_TypeNumber A03/16 30 1 Pub_Writer Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland 30 2 Pub_Title Framing agenda for business model innovation research from the B2B context 30 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 03_16.pdf 30 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This paper reviews the literature on business models in the business-to-business (B2B) context and proposes a research agenda that can be explored by future studies using various management and organizational theories. We outline four research themes and seven research topics for research on business model innovations in the B2B context. Further studies on these topics can make significant contributions to the business model literature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 30 5 Pub_Type 1 30 6 Pub_Year 2016 30 7 Pub_OldID 0 30 8 20697 A02/16 Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland A framework for sustainable interorganizational business model /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 02_16.pdf <p>Drawing on literature on business model innovations and sustainability, this paper develops a framework for sustainable interorganizational business models. The aim of the framework is to enhance the sustainability of firms&rsquo; business models by enabling firms to create future value by taking into account environmental, social and economic factors. The paper discusses two themes: (1) application of the term sustainability to business model innovation, and (2) implications of integrating sustainability into business model innovations for long-term economic success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20697 31 0 Pub_TypeNumber A02/16 31 1 Pub_Writer Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland 31 2 Pub_Title A framework for sustainable interorganizational business model 31 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 02_16.pdf 31 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Drawing on literature on business model innovations and sustainability, this paper develops a framework for sustainable interorganizational business models. The aim of the framework is to enhance the sustainability of firms&rsquo; business models by enabling firms to create future value by taking into account environmental, social and economic factors. The paper discusses two themes: (1) application of the term sustainability to business model innovation, and (2) implications of integrating sustainability into business model innovations for long-term economic success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 31 5 Pub_Type 1 31 6 Pub_Year 2016 31 7 Pub_OldID 0 31 8 20696 A06/16 Yuanming Ni and Stein I. Steinshamn Optimal fishing mortalities with age-structured bioeconomic model-a case of NEA mackerel /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_16.pdf <p>The effects of random environmental impacts on optimal exploitation of a fish population are investigated using both optimization and simulation, based on a discrete-time age-structured bioeconomic model. The optimization problem is solved as a non-linear programming problem in GAMS. First, a basic model structure and 6 different scenarios, dealing with two interactions between fish and environment, are introduced. Based on the simplest scenario, eight different parameter combinations are tested. Then the optimization problem is solved for each of the 6 scenarios for a period of 100 years in order to gain long term insights. The main finding is that higher volatility from the environment leads to higher net profits but together with a lower probability of actually hitting the mean values. Simulations are conducted with different fixed fishing mortality levels under 6 scenarios. It seems that a constant fishing mortality around 0.06 is optimal. In the end, a comparison is made between historical and optimal harvest for a period of 40 years. It turns out that in more than 70% of the time, the optimal exploitation offered by our optimization model dominates the historical one, leading to 43% higher net profit and 34% lower fishing cost on average.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20696 32 0 Pub_TypeNumber A06/16 32 1 Pub_Writer Yuanming Ni and Stein I. Steinshamn 32 2 Pub_Title Optimal fishing mortalities with age-structured bioeconomic model-a case of NEA mackerel 32 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_16.pdf 32 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The effects of random environmental impacts on optimal exploitation of a fish population are investigated using both optimization and simulation, based on a discrete-time age-structured bioeconomic model. The optimization problem is solved as a non-linear programming problem in GAMS. First, a basic model structure and 6 different scenarios, dealing with two interactions between fish and environment, are introduced. Based on the simplest scenario, eight different parameter combinations are tested. Then the optimization problem is solved for each of the 6 scenarios for a period of 100 years in order to gain long term insights. The main finding is that higher volatility from the environment leads to higher net profits but together with a lower probability of actually hitting the mean values. Simulations are conducted with different fixed fishing mortality levels under 6 scenarios. It seems that a constant fishing mortality around 0.06 is optimal. In the end, a comparison is made between historical and optimal harvest for a period of 40 years. It turns out that in more than 70% of the time, the optimal exploitation offered by our optimization model dominates the historical one, leading to 43% higher net profit and 34% lower fishing cost on average.</p> 32 5 Pub_Type 1 32 6 Pub_Year 2016 32 7 Pub_OldID 0 32 8 19697 R03/16 Eirik Vatne Sysselsetting i petroleumsvirksomhet 2015. Omfang og lokalisering av ansatte i oljeselskap og den spesialiserte leverandørindustrien /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_16_(1).pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 19697 33 0 Pub_TypeNumber R03/16 33 1 Pub_Writer Eirik Vatne 33 2 Pub_Title Sysselsetting i petroleumsvirksomhet 2015. Omfang og lokalisering av ansatte i oljeselskap og den spesialiserte leverandørindustrien 33 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_16_(1).pdf 33 4 Pub_AbstractEn 33 5 Pub_Type 2 33 6 Pub_Year 2016 33 7 Pub_OldID 0 33 8 18696 R12/15 Per Heum, Kåre Petter Hagen, Eva Benedicte Norman, Victor D. Norman og Linda Orvedal Samferdselsprosjekters betydning for verdiskapningen. Holdepunkter for en samfunnsøkonomisk tilnærming /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 12_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 18696 34 0 Pub_TypeNumber R12/15 34 1 Pub_Writer Per Heum, Kåre Petter Hagen, Eva Benedicte Norman, Victor D. Norman og Linda Orvedal 34 2 Pub_Title Samferdselsprosjekters betydning for verdiskapningen. Holdepunkter for en samfunnsøkonomisk tilnærming 34 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 12_15.pdf 34 4 Pub_AbstractEn 34 5 Pub_Type 2 34 6 Pub_Year 2015 34 7 Pub_OldID 0 34 8 17697 A12/15 Henrik Fjellstad og Eirik Sund Karlsen Koordinert adferd i banknæringen. Prissignalisering – et problem for samfunnet? /Files/Filer/Publications/A12_15.pdf 1 2015 0 PubID 17697 35 0 Pub_TypeNumber A12/15 35 1 Pub_Writer Henrik Fjellstad og Eirik Sund Karlsen 35 2 Pub_Title Koordinert adferd i banknæringen. Prissignalisering – et problem for samfunnet? 35 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A12_15.pdf 35 4 Pub_AbstractEn 35 5 Pub_Type 1 35 6 Pub_Year 2015 35 7 Pub_OldID 0 35 8 17696 A13/15 Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik The Portuguese Fish Processing Industry from the 1960s to the Present /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 13_15.pdf <p>The purpose of this report is to analyse developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present. In this period, Portugal has undergone tremendous political and macroeconomic changes. While Portugal used to be nearly self sufficient in the supply of fish, the country has become a net importer of fish. These changes have also affected fish processing. Moreover, the development of this industry has been promoted in several different ways, and Portugal has now also become an important exporter to several countries. The purpose of this report is to highlight and analyse these developments. In a sense, it is an extension of Bj&oslash;rndal et al., (2015), who analysed the development in Portuguese fisheries from the 1960s to the present.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 17696 36 0 Pub_TypeNumber A13/15 36 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik 36 2 Pub_Title The Portuguese Fish Processing Industry from the 1960s to the Present 36 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 13_15.pdf 36 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The purpose of this report is to analyse developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present. In this period, Portugal has undergone tremendous political and macroeconomic changes. While Portugal used to be nearly self sufficient in the supply of fish, the country has become a net importer of fish. These changes have also affected fish processing. Moreover, the development of this industry has been promoted in several different ways, and Portugal has now also become an important exporter to several countries. The purpose of this report is to highlight and analyse these developments. In a sense, it is an extension of Bj&oslash;rndal et al., (2015), who analysed the development in Portuguese fisheries from the 1960s to the present.</p> 36 5 Pub_Type 1 36 6 Pub_Year 2015 36 7 Pub_OldID 0 36 8 16696 R14/15 Erik Døving, Paul N. Gooderham og Henrik Øhrn HR-feltet i Norge 1995-2014: Stabilitet og profesjonalisering? /Files/Filer/Publications/R14_15.pdf <p>Dette er en sammenstilling av resultater fra fire runder av Cranet-unders&oslash;kelsen i Norge. Etter 20 &aring;r med HR-unders&oslash;kelser i Norge avtegner det seg et hovedbilde. HR er et felt preget av betydelig stabilitet over to ti&aring;r der norsk &oslash;konomi og samfunn har v&aelig;rt i betydelig utvikling. Mange HR-aktiviteter er temmelig like i dag som for 20 &aring;r siden. Samtidig er HR-feltet i utvikling, der vi blant annet ser tendenser til at HR kommer h&oslash;yere p&aring; dagsorden i virksomhetene og slik blir tydelig knyttet til virksomhetens strategi og overordnete arbeid. Dette tror vi er uttrykk for mer profesjonalisering av HR-arbeidet i virksomhetene.</p> 2 2014 0 PubID 16696 37 0 Pub_TypeNumber R14/15 37 1 Pub_Writer Erik Døving, Paul N. Gooderham og Henrik Øhrn 37 2 Pub_Title HR-feltet i Norge 1995-2014: Stabilitet og profesjonalisering? 37 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R14_15.pdf 37 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Dette er en sammenstilling av resultater fra fire runder av Cranet-unders&oslash;kelsen i Norge. Etter 20 &aring;r med HR-unders&oslash;kelser i Norge avtegner det seg et hovedbilde. HR er et felt preget av betydelig stabilitet over to ti&aring;r der norsk &oslash;konomi og samfunn har v&aelig;rt i betydelig utvikling. Mange HR-aktiviteter er temmelig like i dag som for 20 &aring;r siden. Samtidig er HR-feltet i utvikling, der vi blant annet ser tendenser til at HR kommer h&oslash;yere p&aring; dagsorden i virksomhetene og slik blir tydelig knyttet til virksomhetens strategi og overordnete arbeid. Dette tror vi er uttrykk for mer profesjonalisering av HR-arbeidet i virksomhetene.</p> 37 5 Pub_Type 2 37 6 Pub_Year 2014 37 7 Pub_OldID 0 37 8 15696 A11/15 Kristin Ward Heimdal and Kristoffer Johnsen Solberg The effect of competition on non-performing loan rates. Evidence from the Norwegian banking market /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_15.pdf <p>The relationship between bank competition and financial stability has been thoroughly debated over the last decades. The importance of a stable banking system for financial stability makes this a topic of interest for both economists and regulators.</p><p>Using accounting data for Norwegian banks over the last 20 years, we assess the relationship between the rate of non-performing loans and different measures of competition. We find a non-linear relationship between market concentration and loan risk. For low levels of concentration, increased concentration reduces non-performing loan rates. Past a certain level of concentration, this relationship is reversed. Our findings indicate that the Norwegian banking market today is close to this optimal level, suggesting that a continued increasing trend in concentration will contribute to higher non-performing loan rates.</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 15696 38 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/15 38 1 Pub_Writer Kristin Ward Heimdal and Kristoffer Johnsen Solberg 38 2 Pub_Title The effect of competition on non-performing loan rates. Evidence from the Norwegian banking market 38 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_15.pdf 38 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The relationship between bank competition and financial stability has been thoroughly debated over the last decades. The importance of a stable banking system for financial stability makes this a topic of interest for both economists and regulators.</p><p>Using accounting data for Norwegian banks over the last 20 years, we assess the relationship between the rate of non-performing loans and different measures of competition. We find a non-linear relationship between market concentration and loan risk. For low levels of concentration, increased concentration reduces non-performing loan rates. Past a certain level of concentration, this relationship is reversed. Our findings indicate that the Norwegian banking market today is close to this optimal level, suggesting that a continued increasing trend in concentration will contribute to higher non-performing loan rates.</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 38 5 Pub_Type 1 38 6 Pub_Year 2015 38 7 Pub_OldID 0 38 8 15695 R13/15 Torstein Nesheim Enhetlig styring i en mangfoldig stat? En kunnskapsoversikt over betingelser for ledelse, styring, organisering og samordning i staten /Files/Filer/Publications/R13_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 15695 39 0 Pub_TypeNumber R13/15 39 1 Pub_Writer Torstein Nesheim 39 2 Pub_Title Enhetlig styring i en mangfoldig stat? En kunnskapsoversikt over betingelser for ledelse, styring, organisering og samordning i staten 39 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R13_15.pdf 39 4 Pub_AbstractEn 39 5 Pub_Type 2 39 6 Pub_Year 2015 39 7 Pub_OldID 0 39 8 15694 R01/15 Thea Jarneid Holmen and Ingvild Skurtveit A Longitudinal Perspective on Rolling Forecasts & Interactions /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_15.pdf <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization. Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. Through qualitative research method, this study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how forecasting information, in a longitudinal perspective, affects top management interaction. Specifically we investigate: (a) how top management make use of forecasting information; (b) what changes has affected the forecasting information and influenced top management discussions; and (c) what challenges in regards of forecasting processes have affected top management attention.</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 15694 40 0 Pub_TypeNumber R01/15 40 1 Pub_Writer Thea Jarneid Holmen and Ingvild Skurtveit 40 2 Pub_Title A Longitudinal Perspective on Rolling Forecasts & Interactions 40 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_15.pdf 40 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization. Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. Through qualitative research method, this study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how forecasting information, in a longitudinal perspective, affects top management interaction. Specifically we investigate: (a) how top management make use of forecasting information; (b) what changes has affected the forecasting information and influenced top management discussions; and (c) what challenges in regards of forecasting processes have affected top management attention.</p> 40 5 Pub_Type 2 40 6 Pub_Year 2015 40 7 Pub_OldID 0 40 8 15693 A15/15 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies /Files/Filer/Publications/A15_15.pdf <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2013, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 14/15 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 15693 41 0 Pub_TypeNumber A15/15 41 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving 41 2 Pub_Title NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies 41 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A15_15.pdf 41 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2013, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 14/15 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 41 5 Pub_Type 1 41 6 Pub_Year 2015 41 7 Pub_OldID 0 41 8 15692 R05/15 Eirik Vatne Growth and Innovation: Venture capital, private equity, and innovation processes in service industries /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 05_15.pdf <p>This report focuses on service-innovation in firms supported by venture capital/private equity. The first part discusses specific characteristics of services and develops a typology of innovation modes. The second part identifies the importance of service firms among Norwegian firms supported by risk money. Results are reported from a small survey among fund managers focused on motives for investing in their portfolio firms. The last part conveys results from a qualitative case study including 21 portfolio firms in services. It documents development processes and resources used in innovation projects. Few projects were classified as radical innovation. The majority of projects were incremental innovations or based on recombination of existing resources. Technology and software were important elements in most projects. Customers&rsquo; needs were identified as an important trigger, but the innovation project was mainly initiated by the firm&rsquo;s own personnel. Innovation projects were formally organized, often dependent on resources controlled by the operational part of the firm. This dependency created conflicts, normally solved through informal relations. Innovation projects were seldom registered as R&amp;D. Only crude measures of performance were used. The most important resources for innovation were reported to be the firm&rsquo;s human capital, combined with a culture for change and well-developed social networks. Financial and managerial support from the VC/PE-owner were also regarded as important, but generally, the firms were not involved in larger networks of partners for innovation. Lastly, some implications for innovation policy are discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 15692 42 0 Pub_TypeNumber R05/15 42 1 Pub_Writer Eirik Vatne 42 2 Pub_Title Growth and Innovation: Venture capital, private equity, and innovation processes in service industries 42 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 05_15.pdf 42 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This report focuses on service-innovation in firms supported by venture capital/private equity. The first part discusses specific characteristics of services and develops a typology of innovation modes. The second part identifies the importance of service firms among Norwegian firms supported by risk money. Results are reported from a small survey among fund managers focused on motives for investing in their portfolio firms. The last part conveys results from a qualitative case study including 21 portfolio firms in services. It documents development processes and resources used in innovation projects. Few projects were classified as radical innovation. The majority of projects were incremental innovations or based on recombination of existing resources. Technology and software were important elements in most projects. Customers&rsquo; needs were identified as an important trigger, but the innovation project was mainly initiated by the firm&rsquo;s own personnel. Innovation projects were formally organized, often dependent on resources controlled by the operational part of the firm. This dependency created conflicts, normally solved through informal relations. Innovation projects were seldom registered as R&amp;D. Only crude measures of performance were used. The most important resources for innovation were reported to be the firm&rsquo;s human capital, combined with a culture for change and well-developed social networks. Financial and managerial support from the VC/PE-owner were also regarded as important, but generally, the firms were not involved in larger networks of partners for innovation. Lastly, some implications for innovation policy are discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 42 5 Pub_Type 2 42 6 Pub_Year 2015 42 7 Pub_OldID 0 42 8 15691 R06/15 Evangelos Toumasatos and Fo Wang A Bioeconomic and Game Theoretic Analysis of the Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_15.pdf <p>This is an empirical analysis of the so-called Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute between coastal nations such as the EU, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In this thesis, firstly, we discuss the relevant biological and managerial aspects of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel. Then we begin to give a full factual depiction of the dispute. Based on the historical accounts of the dispute, we define the research problems of the issue. Further, we lay out the theoretical basis for solving such problems, i.e., fishery economics and game theory. By applying the theoretical framework and adopting the bioeconomic model, we solve the problems with extensive discussion and sensitivity analysis. The solution we find for the Mackerel Dispute is that all coastal nations should cooperate because such cooperation would lead to more NPV, recruitment and&nbsp; escapement levels of the mackerel stock but less harvest collectively. However, only with a proper benefit sharing arrangement, such cooperation may be feasible, resulting in each individual player end up with more benefit than acting on its own.</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 15691 43 0 Pub_TypeNumber R06/15 43 1 Pub_Writer Evangelos Toumasatos and Fo Wang 43 2 Pub_Title A Bioeconomic and Game Theoretic Analysis of the Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute 43 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_15.pdf 43 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This is an empirical analysis of the so-called Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute between coastal nations such as the EU, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In this thesis, firstly, we discuss the relevant biological and managerial aspects of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel. Then we begin to give a full factual depiction of the dispute. Based on the historical accounts of the dispute, we define the research problems of the issue. Further, we lay out the theoretical basis for solving such problems, i.e., fishery economics and game theory. By applying the theoretical framework and adopting the bioeconomic model, we solve the problems with extensive discussion and sensitivity analysis. The solution we find for the Mackerel Dispute is that all coastal nations should cooperate because such cooperation would lead to more NPV, recruitment and&nbsp; escapement levels of the mackerel stock but less harvest collectively. However, only with a proper benefit sharing arrangement, such cooperation may be feasible, resulting in each individual player end up with more benefit than acting on its own.</p> 43 5 Pub_Type 2 43 6 Pub_Year 2015 43 7 Pub_OldID 0 43 8 14692 A10/15 José Fernández Polanco and Trond Bjørndal Value Chain and Price Integration in the Spanish Market for Salted Cod /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_15.pdf <p>Salted cod is a much appreciated product in the traditional Spanish cuisine. Following the collapse of the Newfoundland fishery, local processors became dependent on imports of raw material in order to keep on producing. As a result, substantial changes in the value chain structure and dynamics took place. Using price integration techniques, this paper analyzes the relation across prices of salted cod products along the value chain in the modern Spanish markets. Horizontal price integration is used to test competition across commodities and countries at the import level. Vertical integration analyzes price transmission from imports to retail. Results suggest competition across imports of different commodities of salted cod and countries of origin. On the other side, changes in the prices of imports are transmitted to final consumers when the product is imported from the producing country. However, price transmission can be affected when intra EU trade takes place.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 14692 44 0 Pub_TypeNumber A10/15 44 1 Pub_Writer José Fernández Polanco and Trond Bjørndal 44 2 Pub_Title Value Chain and Price Integration in the Spanish Market for Salted Cod 44 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_15.pdf 44 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Salted cod is a much appreciated product in the traditional Spanish cuisine. Following the collapse of the Newfoundland fishery, local processors became dependent on imports of raw material in order to keep on producing. As a result, substantial changes in the value chain structure and dynamics took place. Using price integration techniques, this paper analyzes the relation across prices of salted cod products along the value chain in the modern Spanish markets. Horizontal price integration is used to test competition across commodities and countries at the import level. Vertical integration analyzes price transmission from imports to retail. Results suggest competition across imports of different commodities of salted cod and countries of origin. On the other side, changes in the prices of imports are transmitted to final consumers when the product is imported from the producing country. However, price transmission can be affected when intra EU trade takes place.</p> 44 5 Pub_Type 1 44 6 Pub_Year 2015 44 7 Pub_OldID 0 44 8 14691 A09/15 Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon Demand Characteristics for Imported Cod Products in Portugal Frozen, Salted & Dried and Salted /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_15.pdf <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted &amp; dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shifts in demand overtime impacting price of product. <br />Results suggest that over the period of study a strong positive shift in demand for frozen product doubling the price of the product relative to the initial period. But both imported salted &amp; dried and salted product show overall negative shifts in demand decreasing price and may represent a structural shift towards frozen product.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 14691 45 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/15 45 1 Pub_Writer Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon 45 2 Pub_Title Demand Characteristics for Imported Cod Products in Portugal Frozen, Salted & Dried and Salted 45 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_15.pdf 45 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted &amp; dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shifts in demand overtime impacting price of product. <br />Results suggest that over the period of study a strong positive shift in demand for frozen product doubling the price of the product relative to the initial period. But both imported salted &amp; dried and salted product show overall negative shifts in demand decreasing price and may represent a structural shift towards frozen product.</p> 45 5 Pub_Type 1 45 6 Pub_Year 2015 45 7 Pub_OldID 0 45 8 14690 A14/15 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper /Files/Filer/Publications/A14_15.pdf 1 2015 0 PubID 14690 46 0 Pub_TypeNumber A14/15 46 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving 46 2 Pub_Title Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper 46 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A14_15.pdf 46 4 Pub_AbstractEn 46 5 Pub_Type 1 46 6 Pub_Year 2015 46 7 Pub_OldID 0 46 8 14689 R07/15 Per Egil Pedersen, Tor Helge Aas, Kristin Bentsen and Are Branstad Patterns and practices of innovation in Norwegian service firms /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 07_15.pdf <p>This report documents the studies conducted in workpackages 2 and 4 in the SNF-project &ldquo;MISSING: Measuring innovation in service systems &ndash; indicators on new grounds&rdquo;. It first presents the resource-process-system framework applied in the studies and also summarizes some of the relevant findings and gaps in the innovation studies and innovation management literatures on service innovation. Two empirical studies are reported. The first is founded in the innovation studies literature on innovation patterns but extends this tradition into the investigation of the performance effects of innovation patterns with particular focus on service sectors/systems. The study finds several unique innovation patterns of individual service sectors/systems and reveals the relationship between these patterns and three types of firm performance effects. The second study is founded in the innovation management literature on innovation practices and extends this literature by linking its selection of individual firms to service classification schemes offered in the innovation studies literature. The study finds more similarities between the innovation practices of service firms in different sectors/systems than differences. The report ends with summarizing the findings across the two studies and suggests managerial and policy implications of the findings. </p> 2 2015 0 PubID 14689 47 0 Pub_TypeNumber R07/15 47 1 Pub_Writer Per Egil Pedersen, Tor Helge Aas, Kristin Bentsen and Are Branstad 47 2 Pub_Title Patterns and practices of innovation in Norwegian service firms 47 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 07_15.pdf 47 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This report documents the studies conducted in workpackages 2 and 4 in the SNF-project &ldquo;MISSING: Measuring innovation in service systems &ndash; indicators on new grounds&rdquo;. It first presents the resource-process-system framework applied in the studies and also summarizes some of the relevant findings and gaps in the innovation studies and innovation management literatures on service innovation. Two empirical studies are reported. The first is founded in the innovation studies literature on innovation patterns but extends this tradition into the investigation of the performance effects of innovation patterns with particular focus on service sectors/systems. The study finds several unique innovation patterns of individual service sectors/systems and reveals the relationship between these patterns and three types of firm performance effects. The second study is founded in the innovation management literature on innovation practices and extends this literature by linking its selection of individual firms to service classification schemes offered in the innovation studies literature. The study finds more similarities between the innovation practices of service firms in different sectors/systems than differences. The report ends with summarizing the findings across the two studies and suggests managerial and policy implications of the findings. </p> 47 5 Pub_Type 2 47 6 Pub_Year 2015 47 7 Pub_OldID 0 47 8 14688 A07/15 Lars Sørgard Vil konkurranse undergrave stabiliteten i banksektoren? /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_15_(1).pdf 1 2015 0 PubID 14688 48 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/15 48 1 Pub_Writer Lars Sørgard 48 2 Pub_Title Vil konkurranse undergrave stabiliteten i banksektoren? 48 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_15_(1).pdf 48 4 Pub_AbstractEn 48 5 Pub_Type 1 48 6 Pub_Year 2015 48 7 Pub_OldID 0 48 8 14687 A08/15 Armando J. Garcia Pires Content Provision and Multi-Homing /Files/Filer/Publications/A08_15.pdf <p>We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers prefer media firms with more demand. As such, media firms would like to increase demand to increase advertising revenues. Offering more content increases demand because more consumers can consume their ideal variety without paying transport costs. We show that, relatively to the case with single-homing consumers, media firms provide less content with multi-homing consumers. The reason is that with multi-homing consumers, competition between media firms is weakened. Multi-homing consumers consume from all media firms, and therefore media firms have lower incentives to provide content to attract demand, and advertising revenues. As a result, social welfare tends to be higher under the multi-homing case relatively to the single-homing case, when the advertising market is large, and when the network effects are large relative to the intensity of consumers&rsquo; preferences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 14687 49 0 Pub_TypeNumber A08/15 49 1 Pub_Writer Armando J. Garcia Pires 49 2 Pub_Title Content Provision and Multi-Homing 49 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A08_15.pdf 49 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers prefer media firms with more demand. As such, media firms would like to increase demand to increase advertising revenues. Offering more content increases demand because more consumers can consume their ideal variety without paying transport costs. We show that, relatively to the case with single-homing consumers, media firms provide less content with multi-homing consumers. The reason is that with multi-homing consumers, competition between media firms is weakened. Multi-homing consumers consume from all media firms, and therefore media firms have lower incentives to provide content to attract demand, and advertising revenues. As a result, social welfare tends to be higher under the multi-homing case relatively to the single-homing case, when the advertising market is large, and when the network effects are large relative to the intensity of consumers&rsquo; preferences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 49 5 Pub_Type 1 49 6 Pub_Year 2015 49 7 Pub_OldID 0 49 8